an München schätzen. München ist zudem die sicherste Stadt in Deutschland .. mit an den Standort angepassten Vermietungskonzepten dem Markt sehr .. Industrie-/Logistikimmobilien / Industry/logistics properties. 4, the issue of corporate real estate in Germany for the first time.1 . Logistikimmobilien – Markt und Standorte Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz. CREDITS. Der Markt für Büro-, Industrie- und Gewerbeflächen in der Region Berlin. (Berlin: JLLS). Jones Lang LaSalle (), Logistikimmobilien-Report Deutschland . “Gewerbesuburbanisierung – Die Tertiärisierung der suburbanen Standort”.
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The article aims at giving basic data and interpretations on the chemical logistics logistikimmobilen in Germany. The findings are based on a combination of primary research and secondary data in the field of logistics service providers, logistics agglomerations and logistics employment.
Logistics service providers unc are specialized in services for the chemical industry are identified. The special requirements for logistics handling goods for the chemical industry are derived and logistics clusters in the German chemical industry are presented. The development of logistics employment indicates that logistics activities in the chemical sector are frequently outsourced.
Interconnections between the industry and other sectors such as the automotive manufacturing industry, the pharmaceutical or the consumer goods production industry underline this importance. The chemical sector has a unique supply chain and demands a range of logistics services. Make or buy decisions regarding logistics projects are frequently required.
Contemporary logistics research tends to be focused on particular topics and case studies focus on single companies or particular developments.
Apart from that, the purpose of this essay is to deliver approaches and basic quantitative data on the chemical industry and its logistics environment over time.
The research work presented in this article is based on evaluations and ongoing work of the Fraunhofer Center for applied research on Supply Chain Services SCS for the purpose of building knowledge, expertise and data on supply chain services. Basic studies of Fraunhofer are addressing logistics market sizes, market segments, logistic service providers LSPslogistics employment, logistics locations, trade interconnections and future trends.
The basic motivation is to improve circumstances for complex decision situations that occur on a daily basis in globally interconnected firms, their supply chains and, following Cooper et al. Referring to Cooper et al. The structure of this article is as follows.
Subsequent to the introduction, section 2 gives an overview of the chemical industry in Germany. Each of these sections 3 to 5 presents methods as well as results. Section 6 shows trends that the chemical logistics industry is currently facing. Section 7 concludes with final remarks and suggests fields where research should help to gain transparency on industry-specific logistics. For Germany, the corresponding figures show revenues of about EUR bn Destatis, ; own calculations.
Figure 1 shows the products manufactured by the German chemical sector in the year About two thirds of the revenues are generated by manufacturing and selling basic chemicals. Dominating trading partners in im- and exports are the Netherlands, Belgium and France. A market is a physical or virtual space that connects supply and demand for products or services. Such a market can be segmented into its basic parts that are the suppliers and demanders.
As they do not do business for an altruistic reason, the items of interest why suppliers and demanders work together also need to be taken into account, i. These systems provide distinct codes that enable a targeted analysis of parts of an economy and enable combining data from different statistical sources on revenues, tonnages moved, employees, the value of traded goods, type and number of relevant goods etc.
Furthermore, through the combination of these items of data, ratios can be calculated and compared across different sectors. In addition, the development of those figures can be traced via time series analyses.
When using data this way, a basic prerequisite is that the retrieved statistics are structured according to these industry classifications. If data is prepared by using different classification systems, extensive efforts are necessary to harmonize this data to enable a joint analysis. It also forms the basis for the evaluations of this essay. The WZ system differentiates 16 types of manufactured goods for the chemical manufacturing industry wholesale and raw material mining are excluded Statistisches Bundesamt, This classification system defines which products are included and which are excluded for every type of goods.
To align interpretations from statistical data, sighting and clustering the manufactured goods regarding their physical characteristics is useful. Some basic characteristics regarding the logistics needs of goods are fluidity, bulkiness, solidity, toxicity and fugacity, which decide about how goods are handled and transported, e.
In general, the typical means of transport can be derived via literature research and can be adapted to individual cases. Special issues might require additional qualitative or quantitative primary research among practitioners from the respective industry.
Business Chemistry | The logistics profile of the German chemical industry
The following approach is used in order to identify the most relevant demanders within a specific industry as surveying practitioners often does not result in a comprehensive list. In step 1, data is extracted from company databases. There are some of them available for the German market and even more for other countries. Usually, these databases allow an export of data according to the industrial classifications that are used by statistical offices.
However, pitfalls and shortcomings of such rankings often come to light. The most frequent reason for problematic results is that the assignment of firms to industry sector codes is not as distinct as desirable. In addition, the affiliation is sometimes inadequate as many firms are active in different fields through a diversified setup. Thus, one statistical code might not be sufficient to classify such firms. For example, this is the case for Siemens, a global player in machinery, electricity, plant construction and other sectors.
Therefore, company databases also display one or more secondary classification codes as a method to resolve such shortcomings. Usually, a company description is also available to characterize companies.
Nevertheless, these pieces of information are insufficient to obtain a valid list of top firms in an industry without considering further information.
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To set up a ranking, additional research needs to be carried out that encompasses the screening of business profiles, business reports, magazines and similar sources. An exchange with experts is helpful if a list needs to be set up from scratch, i. A recent research project Schwemmer et al. As information on this particular topic is not surveyed by any source or database, a list of the most important companies had to be created out of nothing.
For more than 20 years now, data has been gathered in exchange with logistics firms. The process includes identifying, cataloging and characterizing respectively profiling logistics companies. Similar to establishing a list of the biggest firms in an industrial sector, the work to establish a top ranking for the biggest LSPs in Germany is only possible to be achieved by elaborate research work. Primary research on this topic includes identifying logistics firms and evaluating their businesses by surveying those firms concerning their business size, business model and other relevant aspects like e.
While the customer segment focus of a LSP might be easy to assess by the modern means of communication homepages, company reports, etc. Thus, collecting primary data is the method of choice. This includes logistics activities that are outsourced to LSPs and those rendered in-house by wholesale or industrial firms not outsourced.
The most important countries for Germany with regard to trading chemical commodities are the Netherlands and Belgium.
This is especially attributable to the port of Rotterdam being of significant importance for the European chemical industry. From a logistics perspective, logistikinmobilien balance of trade flows is interesting to analyze as it can have effects on the kind of logistics services that are available and on price levels of logisfikimmobilien services regarding the trade lane.
The decimal numbers within figure 2 represent directional backload factors. These are calculated as the imported measured against the exported tons. A backload factor of 1.
Backload factors that are stahdorte 1. From a German point of view, the backload factors are 1. The probability that backloads can be acquired for outgoing transports from Germany to the Netherlands resp. Belgium is high, and vice versa, the risk for an empty run backwards is low. The river Rhine between Rotterdam and Mannheim in Germany is the single most important trade lane for hinterland traffic from the port of Rotterdam.
Time and distance profiles for the mentioned trade lanes are displayed in table 1.
The third distance measure denotes the furthest distance to connect the countries. Assuming an average speed of travel of 60 km per hour, the displayed time is necessary to travel the distance via road traffic.
As the plus symbol indicates, the infrastructural conditions on these trade lanes are good, one can assume that the average jn of 60 km per hour can be reached within these countries. The demanders of logistics services in the chemical industry in Germany are displayed in Table 2. This top 10 list presents the demand side of the chemical logistics market for Germany as deutscyland result of a study conducted in with turnover information available for Basell is ranked third.
deutcshland As Germany is a large economy, the top 10 chemical companies reach turn-over figures that are well above the mark of EUR 1 bn per year. The products of the companies do not only differ in type but also regarding their requirements for distribution to customers. The top list mainly includes well-diversified players with a wide range of products involving different handling requirements and logistics services.
The LSPs that are specialized in the chemical industry are shown in Table 3. A complex range of produced goods requires a suitable logistics mix. The chemical industry is marked by fluid and bulky goods that are transported inbound to the manufacturers sites.
Such composite sites need own infrastructures that enable efficient internal transportation and value adding processes. In contrast to other industry sectors, logistkiimmobilien special kind of LSPs emerged from the chemical industry that carries out transports at the composite sites of the manufacturers as location-based service providers.
As these are often spin-offs of the manufacturers at site, logistikimjobilien mainly provide services for their parent company but might also provide services for third parties.
The included LSPs all hold specialized equipment and assets to provide their services and to handle hazardous goods. Therefore, barriers to entry into these LSP markets are high. Certificates that prove that LSPs are able to handle hazardous goods and fulfill quality standards are relevant to build trust to possible contractors. Besides specialized load carriers, there are many generalized logistics services relevant for the chemical industry.
The closer the end customer is, the more general is the logistics equipment. For example inbound transportation is often carried out with the use of pipelines, tankers or tanker trucks as bulk transports, the outbound transportation as well as distribution to original equipment manufacturers, wholesalers or retailers are more distinct and can be carried out by parcel or packaged goods carriers.
This industry code does not obey the cross-sectional characteristic of logistics but encompasses the LSP market. Employees that perform logistics tasks at manufacturers and trade companies are not taken into account.
In order to assess logistics employment entirely, Fraunhofer Logistikinmobilien developed an approach that allows considering the logistics relevance based on single job descriptions that are cataloged in the German employment statistics from the Federal Employment Agency.
Handling and transportation of chemical goods and also related administrative tasks occur at chemical manufacturers, chemical trade companies wholesale and at LSPs. These LSPs carry out logistics activities that are outsourced by the shipping companies.