Vertebrados: anatomía comparada, función y evolución by Kenneth Kardong, By (author) Kenneth Kardong, Translated by Fernando Pardos Martínez Libro de texto más actualizado para la asignatura de Vertebrados. Kardong: Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution, Fifth Edition (a) From Bruce A. Young- (Washburn University) and Kenneth V. Kardong – ( Washington State University), “Naja haje” (On-line) Anatomia · Vertebrados Gray’s Anatomia para Estudantes é imbatível: não há livro de anatomia que o supere!. Zoología.- Kardong, Kennethe – Vertebrados – Anatomía Comparada, Función y Evolución (4ta Edición). Cargado por julian. Libro de zoologia de vertebrados.

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Respectively, Cambria was the Roman name for Wales, and the Ordovices. These eons are divided into four eras of unequal length—Precambrian,Paleozoic,Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. Each era is divided into periods,and periods into epochs.

Only epochs vertebrsdos the Cenozoic are listed in this figure. Devonian was named for rocks near Devonshire, also on British soil. In North America, coal-bearing rocks of this age match with the Lower and Upper Carboniferous; American geologists sometimes refer to these divisions of the Carboniferous as the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods, after rocks in the Mississippi Valley and the state of Pennsylvania.

The Permian, although named by a Scotsman, is based on rocks in the province of Perm in western Siberia. The Triassic takes its name from rocks in Germany; the Jurassic from the Jura. Mountains between France and Switzerland; and the Cretaceous from the Latin word for chalk cretawhich refers to the white chalk cliffs along the English Channel.

It was once thought that geologic eras could vertebeados dividedinto four parts—Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, and Quaternary—oldest to youngest, respectively. This proved untenable for the eras, but two names, Tertiary and Quaternary, survivein U.

Vertebrados : anatomía comparada, función y evolución : Kenneth Kardong :

Internationally, however, these terms are replaced with Paleogene karodng Neogene. Throughout the geological timescale, periods divide into epochs usually named after a characteristic geographic site of that age. Sometimes boundaries between epochs are marked by changes in characteristic fauna. Modern methods of imaging permit morphologists to examine details of the underlying anatomy,here the elevated ribs,which advertise a threatening retaliatory strike by this highly-venomous cobra.


Young- Washburn University and Kenneth V.

North America the late part of the Pliocene epoch is recognized by the presence of particular species of fossil deer, voles, and gophers. The early part of the succeeding Pleistoceneis recognized by the appearance of mammoths. The boundary or transitional time between both of these epochs is defined by a fauna that includes extinct species of jackrabbits and muskrats, but not mammoths.

Most names of epochs are not in general use and will not be referred to in this book. A specific question about designis formulated firstin any analysis.

Thisis not so trivial or simple as it may sound. A well-formed question focuses thought, suggests the appropriate experiment or line of research to pursue, and promises a productive answer. Like sound in air, lightin ether was thought to propagate by settingitin motion.

For a time, they and other scientists were stumped. As it turned out, they had asked the wrong question. Ether, as an invisible occupant of space, does not exist. No ether, no wind. They should have asked firstif ether existed!

Our opinion of these physicists should not be harsh, however, because even mistakesinspire better questions and an eventual more sound answer. In morphology, several vertebrasos tools can be used to help define the question. Supporting dissectionis the newer technique of high-resolution digital tomography, a derivative of the CAT computer-aided tomography scan used in human and animal medicine.

Vertebrados Anatomia Comparada, Função e Evolução 7Ed

It is based on X-ray images made sequentially along an animal, then assembled into a 3-D overall image of the subject figure 1. It can resolve vertebeados as small as a few tens of micronsin size, even when imaging objects made of high-density materials. Another tool is taxonomy, the proposed relationships of the animal and its parts to other species.

From these techniques, we gaininsightinto the morphological design and can place this designin a comparative relationship with other organisms. The specific questions we then formulate about the structure of the organism might be about its function or evolution.


To determine how a structure performs within an organism, various techniques are used to inspect the functioning organism or its parts directly. Radiography, X-ray analysis, allows directinspection of hard parts or marked parts during performance figure 1.

Expense or accessibility, however, often makes radiography of a living organism impractical. High-speed videotape or cinematographic film can sometimes be used instead.

Vertebrates Comparative Anatomy Function Evolution publication

The event, feeding or running, for example, is filmed with the camera set at a high rate of speed so that the event unfolds in slow motion when played back at normal projection speed. The tape or film preserves a record of the event, and slow-motion playback permits careful inspection of motions at a speed where sudden displacements are obvious. Natural markers—forinstance, bulging muscles or visible hard parts such as teeth or hooves—allow inferences about the functioning of attached or underlying livrro and muscles.

Inferences can also be made from gentle manipulation of partsin a relaxed or anesthetized animal. From this careful record of displacements, velocity and acceleration of parts can be calculated to describe the motion of parts quantitatively. Together withinformation on simultaneous muscle activity, this produces a description vvertebrados the part and an explanation of how its bone and muscle karsong achieve a characteristic level of performance.

Similar approaches to kidney and gland function have been used. Radiopaque fluids, those visible. The propulsive phase is depicted in these tracings of vertsbrados radiographs from overhead and side views.

Change in the position of the shoulder blade scapula is evident. Parte 12 de 12 Eras divideinto periods, whose names originatedin Europe. Introduction to Genetics and Evolution Genetics, Evolution.

Evolution of human music through sexual selection Evolution of human music through sexual selection. Atlas de Anatomia Humana Com 1.