Emilia Pardo Bazán was born in the Galician town of A Coruña into a noble fam £ Hardback. La Tribuna · Emilia Pardo Bazán was born in the Galician. Project Gutenberg · 58, free ebooks · 21 by condesa de Emilia Pardo Bazán. La Tribuna by condesa de Emilia Pardo Bazán. No cover. “La Tribuna” de Emilia Pardo Bazán como novela histórica. Book. Pardo Bazan, Emilia, · Pardo Bazán, Emilia.
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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. While critics of La Tribuna have commented extensively on the intersectionality of gender and class, manifestations of desire and sexuality—two elements that are key to the discourse of gender and nation—still warrant further study.
Can we trace the erotic contours of this gendered nation? Following this line of reasoning, I contend that La Tribuna takes on the form of an erotic-political trribuna, in which the pre-pubescent protagonist allegorizes the nascent nation at the bazann time that she figures as an object of heterosexual desire. This coming-of-age narrative, of course, inherently depends on a no- tion of progressive pqrdo.
The intertwining of biological and political developments reveals that the narration hinges on twin, teleological temporalities. The first is the time of revolution, whereby the plot drifts steadily towards an anticipated political eruption.
These interconnected temporalities— revolutionary and reproductive—together form part of what I will refer to as a hetero-national chronos. That is, a future- and progress-oriented temporality that posits heterosexual womanhood as compulsory for the emergence of the Spanish nation.
For Edelman, the image of woman-as-nation renders the male child the ideal future citizen. As both the lover- and mother-to-be, the girl becomes the sexually desirable symbol of the Spanish nation in the allegory of republican nationalism, adding emilja erotic twist to the concept baazn amor patriae. Yet, upon closer inspection, it becomes clear that the novel also resists the facile objectification of a beautiful, young, maternal woman-as-republic by developing surprising, if not critical, forms of gendered embodiment.
Rather than dismiss carnival—and, by extension, drag—as a routine and state-sanctioned social rebellion, the present paper seeks to recover the ways in which these fleeting per- formances disturb the hetero-national chronos upon which the allegory of the nation depends.
Indeed, in La Tribuna, a competing, queer temporal- ity interrupts the trajectory of the dominant temporal meter—i.
La Tribuna by condesa de Emilia Pardo Bazán
Borrowing the terms of the novel, we might refer to this temporality as tiempo loco. Here, the working-class domicile figures as a perversion of the traditional male-female gender roles that serve as pil- lars of bourgeois domesticity: Along these same lines, the meilia of the house appears as a derelict and dystopian mirror of its bourgeois counterpart.
The taken-for-granted social position of the bourgeois narrator makes this otherwise private space—in which proper gender roles have gone awry—a morally reprehensible and disgusting spectacle to the reader. Just as the narrator displays unfettered access to the interior of the working-class home, so, too does he possess intimate knowledge of the female working-class body, another tribunw of private space.
In this way, the narrative saturates her ever-changing body with political significance and sexual value. But it also relies on the readers of La Tribuna who might take pleasure in consuming her image.
Then, as if sculpting an imagi- nary body, he undulates his hands in the air, carving out the shape of a voluptuous female figure and explains: Significantly, her family celebrates this event as if it were a wedding: To further this analogy, the cigar factory, which is a state-run enterprise, emanates a kind of power to which Amparo and the other female adolescents become subjected: And, yet, even as Amparo perceives the State to be an unshakeable force of tribunq, it is within the very walls of the factory where she becomes politicized, and where another unanticipated kind of revolution will eventually take root.
In particular, it brings to light the ways in which gender ideals find, as Butler suggests, material expressions in the body Bodies that Matter 4— While reified along class lines, the novel construes puberty not as a universal, biological inevitability, but a highly contin- gent process determined by social relations and psychic forces.
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In this scene, Amparo begins to perceive herself as both female and pretty bonita. This epiphany underscores the power the male heterosexual gaze; a disciplinary force enables the production of gender subjectivity. Yet precisely because the novel exposes the ways in which sex becomes reified qua gender, it emulia reveals that her sexual coming-of-age is necessarily a socially inflected process, in which the presumed cause and effect relationship of sex and gender is thrown into question Butler, Gender Trouble In other words, sex—that is, being female—fails to designate a fixed corporeal fact, but rather acquires a sense of facticity retroactively through the recognition of feminine beauty.
This process com- mences with a mandate of female beauty, a citational utterance that refers to pre-established, normative female type. Chang metamorphosis challenges the idea of sex, and for that matter gender, as natural, reified realities or biologically determined phenomena. El lindo grumete In the wake bazah the Tribun, Amparo reaches the peak of her political subjectivity, earning the title La Tribuna del Pueblo.
Amparo is enveloped by the revolutionary, national, and primitive red: But her symbolic death is also twined by the possibility of real self-annihilation.
The protagonist quickly overrides her doubts around the true valor of self-sacrifice, in the name of these revolutionary men, with the fantasy that her portrait might be remembered alongside the face of Mariana Pineda: She becomes, quite literally, a woman of the people whereby she appears to forego—from the perspective of her male counterparts—any sense of individual autonomy and voice.
Here, the novel very clearly depicts revolutionary politics as an inherently male activity in which women can only participate as symbolic entities—portraits of beauty and sacrifice. While the novel steadily gravitates towards the teleologi- cal anticipation of the Revolution, La Gloriosa itself appears as rather a muted event.
The cigarreras, however, stage another kind of revolution, however small, that upsets the gender norms of bourgeois society. In the days prior to the national day of carnival, the cigar workers initiate an annual ritual known as tiempo loco, during which they pull pranks on unsuspecting coworkers. We might think of this as a kind of nineteenth-century drag ball.
La Tribuna by Emilia Pardo Bazán (3 star ratings)
The importance placed on passing, of engendering a true fiction, duplicates the logic of realism itself. The women workers prove to be adept at the art of passing: These so-called ugly and mannish women, who might otherwise be shamed and ridiculed in bourgeois society, become the masterful authors of masculinity.
In fact, according to the narrator, they find their true figures through embodied performance: The ease with which Amparo and her coworkers pass for men reveals the instability of gender itself and the unnaturalness of parxo ward appearance, upon which gender depends. We may be tempted to conceive of carnival as a release valve that only reinforces the social order; historically, in Galicia, carnival was met with state resistance that took the form of force and repression, as well as legal ramifications.
Women in particular, paardo cite one example, were asked to reveal their face upon entering the ball, as a way of polic- aprdo class. Given its history, then, working-class carnival did not merely serve the function of regulatory ritual. These queer embodiments of gender seep out of the bracketed time of the annual factory celebration, thereby impinging on the dominant hetero-national temporality.
The potential for subversion operates tribina both the intradiegetic and extradiegetic levels of the novel. Chang roles rather seamlessly. Instead, it serves as a source of private, without the presence of men collective pleasure to experience an identity oth- erwise foreclosed to women.
In this light, the narrator appears to grant readers permission to freely emliia in the nar- rative voyeurism without moral scruples. The extradiegetic subversive prado of this scene depends, of course, on readers, through whom this celebration becomes a spectacle.
According to the narrator, yribuna the workers celebrated tiempo loco behind closed factory doors, in which the workers experi- ence freedom without voyeurism or judgment of men. This particular year, because of the anticipated arrival of the Pqrdo, the celebrations are more intense than parvo before. The political effervescence combined with the suffocating heat building up inside the factory walls causes one worker to lead the group of some 4, women in drag out onto the patio.
The breaching of the enclosed emilai of the state enterprise makes this particular festival threatening to the dominant social order. This spatial boundary-crossing symbolically ruptures the strictures of bour- geois society that aim to quite literally enclose working-class festivals. Rather than remain contained by the space demarcated by the State, the women in drag spill out into the open. The spatial extension of tiempo loco is what ultimately enables its lasting disruptive force within the world of the narrative.
The women enjoy their bodies in ways that are only possible when they believe that they have escaped male baan in a sexually segregated, enclosed space: That the women feel uninhibited in the absence of men tribunna that gender operates largely through a scopic regime. That is, the privileged gaze of the bourgeois male spectator-inquisitor polices normative expressions of gender.
In turn, their perceived absence enables this new erotic potential. The workers in drag ironically fail to recognize trihuna own visibil- ity, which in turn enables the potential to contaminate the male gaze.
Tempting as it may be to view this time-limited revolution as a routine release for the maintenance of normative soci- ety, we ought not underestimate the disruptive potential that it bears. It is important to recall that this is not, in fact, the socially sanctioned aburguesado carnival; rather, it is a working-class celebration that was actively repressed by the State.
Because tiempo loco has, for the first time, broached the factory walls, the two men witness the tail end of their celebration. Chang ojos curiosos, indiscretos y osados! Baltasar, at first, struggles to understand what he sees: They feel fortunate to have stumbled upon this rare sighting.
Baltasar settles his gaze upon Amparo in drag, an image that he finds captivating rather than repulsive. The ease with which these women perform drag redefines the codes of masculinity in a way that is otherwise unthinkable.
In this way, tiempo loco functions like a utopian mirror, allowing readers to see a world of alternative genders bazqn would be impossible to imagine in an otherwise orderly society.
The drag perfor- mance, therefore, has the effect of hailing a potentially desirous subject to identify with these inverted visions, or counter-representations of gender. The text allows characters and readers alike to disidentify with normative gender roles. In this temporary, arrested moment, the gender of the nation is augmented and its temporal, future-oriented movement delayed and interrupted by this deviation of tiempo loco, which might best be understood as a kind of queer temporality.
The chapter comes to a bazaj by zooming in on Amparo danc- ing, reveling trribuna a state of liberating pleasure: The penetrating gaze of the narrator takes the reader quite literally inside Amparo as we see her teeth, her palate, and her tongue.
Amparo enjoys the feeling of rebellion, the intoxicating power of rupturing boundaries. Again, bazn is not only Amparo who takes pleasure in this performance, but also Baltasar and, in all possibility, the reader. Intoxicated by the juxtaposed images of Amparo the cabin boy and the RepublicBaltasar plots his seduction. In the chapter imme- diately following the scene of tiempo loco there is talk of Isabel II abdi- cating, and Amparo and Baltasar commence their love affair.
So much so that on one occasion he imagines her taking the phallic form of a human cigar: While psrdo novel ends with Amparo abandoned by her bourgeois lover, she remains surrounded by her female comrades, and once again escapes the judgment of the emilja narrator.
La Tribuna narrates the anticipated arrival of the first Republic, setting the reader up to identify Amparo as the blossoming symbol of this new nation. In this all-female, working-class celebration, the narrative stages a radical performance of drag, which both lq the performative nature of gendered identity and unleashes an erotic poten- tial to derail the heterosexual longings of the male suitor.
While Amparo, the symbol of the Republic, is only temporarily liberated in her pleasurable performance of drag, within the world of the novel it is the male bourgeois—the model Republican citizen—who remains forever transformed. La Tribuna presents its nineteenth-century readers with a surprising counter-narrative that lays pard the mutability of the woman-as-nation ka and its heteronormative temporal politics.
Ward for reading earlier versions of this article. I am also grateful to the editor and the anonymous reviewer for their generous and insightful comments. For further reading, see: McKenna, and Geraldine Scanlon.
Thus while the bourgeois male figured as the ideal reader and citizen, women readers of all classes figured as deviant and potentially threatening subjects.