Julius Excluded from Heaven (Latin: Iulius exclusus e coelis) is a dialogue that was written in , commonly attributed to the Dutch humanist and theologian. The Julius Exclusus of Erasmus has 18 ratings and 5 reviews. Nenče said: Julius II, the so-called Warrior Pope, dies and goes to St. Peter’s gate. Howev. Julius Exclusus condemns Pope Julius II for his military initiatives. The Incident: Some call his work a Trojan Horse for Luther’s reformation.

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Julius Excluded from Heaven Latin: Iulius exclusus e coelis is a dialogue that was written incommonly attributed to the Dutch humanist and theologian Desiderius Erasmus.

It involves Pope Julius IIwho had recently died, trying to persuade Saint Peter to allow him to nulius Heaven by using the same tactics he applied when alive. The dialogue is also supplemented by a “Genius” his guardian angel who makes wry comments about the pope and his deeds.

The dialogue begins with a drunken Pope Julius II trying to open the gate of heaven with exclusks key to his secret money-chest. He is accompanied by his Genius, his guardian angel. Behind him are the soldiers who died in his military campaigns, who he promised would go to heaven regardless of their deeds. Peter denies him passage, even when Julius threatens him with his army and papal bulls of excommunicationand questions him about his deeds excluus Earth.

Julius then goes into a lengthy explanation of his deeds and justifies his sins, ranging from simony to pederastywith the fact that the pope exclisus the authority to excuse any sin. Peter is disgusted by his description and turns him away.

Julius Excluded from Heaven – WikiVisually

The dialogue ends with Julius planning to muster an army to create his own paradise and capture Heaven. Erasmus is usually credited as the author of the dialogue.

He sometimes implied that he did not write it, but modern scholarship generally overrides this with internal evidence, lack of a credible alternative author, and several cautious statements in a later correspondence.

Thomas More writes in a letter on 15 December that he has gotten hold of a copy of the dialogue in Erasmus’ handwriting, and asks Erasmus what to do with it. A more logical conclusion, however, is that he denied authorship because it would be equated to a slap in the face to his patron Pope Leo Xwho legitimized Erasmus’s birth by means of papal dispensation in Still, the dialogue was very popular and was reprinted many times in pamphlets. It was praised by Martin Luther to be “so learned, and so ingenious, that is, so entirely Erasmian, that it makes the reader laugh at the vices of the church, over which every true Christian ought rather to groan” Theosophy San Diego, online paper, p.

It is very apparent, however, that Erasmus highly disliked Julius II because he felt he did not embody the characteristics of a vicar of Christ.

He was shocked by Julius II’s personal leadership of armies in full armour and what he felt was the work of a worldly, unscrupulous and ambitious man. These thoughts were clearly implied in his more famous satirical work, The Praise of Folly.

In addition to a military policy, he personally led troops into battle on at least two occasions. There is disagreement about Juliuss year of birth, for some sources put it as late asGiuliano della Rovere was the son of Rafaello della Rovere.

Francesco della Rovere was his uncle and he was educated among the Franciscans by his uncle, who took him under his special charge and later sent him to a Franciscan friary in Perugia with the purpose of obtaining knowledge of the sciences. After his uncle was elected Pope Sixtus IV, della Rovere was promoted to be cardinal, taking the title as that formerly held by his uncle.

With his uncle he obtained great influence, and in addition to the archbishopric of Avignon he held no fewer than eight bishoprics, including Lausanne from In Junedella Rovere led an army to Todi and Spoleto, around this time, inan illegitimate daughter was born, Felice della Rovere.

Della Rovere, jealous and angry, accused Borgia of being elected over him, in he joined Charles VIII of France who was undertaking a military expedition into Italy.

This was, in Andrew Greeleys view, almost certainly by means of bribery with money, but also, per Ott, Ullman, and Hughes, with promises.

Giuliano Della Rovere thenceforth took the name of his fourth century predecessor, Julius I, indeed, on the day of his election, he declared I will not live in the same rooms as the Borgias lived. He desecrated the Holy Church as none before and he usurped the papal power by the devils aid, and I forbid under the pain of excommunication anyone to speak or think of Borgia again.

His name and memory must be forgotten and it must be crossed out of every document and memorial. All paintings made of the Borgias or for them must be covered over with black crepe, all the tombs of the Borgias must be opened and their bodies sent back to where they belong—to Spain.

The Borgias apartments remained sealed until the 19th Century, the combination was, however, at first little more than nominal, and was not immediately effective in compelling the Venetians to deliver up more than a few unimportant places in the Romagna. With a campaign inhe led an army to Perugia and Bologna. The refusal of Pope Clement VII to grant the annulment led to the English Reformation, the same year, he founded the Swiss Guard to provide a constant corps of soldiers to protect the Pope.


On Palm Sunday, Julius II entered Rome, both as a second Julius Caesar, heir to the majesty of Romes imperial glory, and in the likeness of Christ, whose vicar the pope was, and who in that capacity governed the universal Roman Church. Julius, who modelled himself after his namesake Caesar, would lead his army across the Italian peninsula under the imperial war-cry. Erasmus was a scholar and wrote in a pure Latin style.

Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet Prince of the Humanists, and has called the crowning glory of the Christian humanists. Erasmus remained a member of the Roman Catholic Church all his life, remaining committed to reforming the Church and he also held to the Catholic doctrine of free will, which some Reformers rejected in favor of the doctrine of predestination. His middle road approach disappointed and even angered scholars in both camps, Erasmus died suddenly in Basel in while preparing to return to Brabant, and was buried in Basel Minster, the former cathedral of the city.

A bronze statue of him was erected in his city of birth inDesiderius Erasmus is reported to have been born in Rotterdam on 28 October in the late s. He was named after Saint Erasmus of Formiae, whom Erasmuss father Gerard personally favored, a 17th-century legend has it that Erasmus was first named Geert Geerts, but this is unfounded.

According to an article by historian Renier Snooy, Erasmus was born in Gouda, the exact year of his birth is debated, with most biographers citing the year as Some evidence confirming can be found in Erasmuss own words, of twenty-three statements Erasmus made about his age, all and he was christened Erasmus after the saint of that name.

Although associated closely with Rotterdam, he lived there for four years. Information on his family and early life comes mainly from vague references in his writings and his parents were not legally married. His father, Gerard, was a Catholic priest and curate in Gouda, little is known of his mother other than that her name was Margaretha Rogerius and she was the daughter of a physician from Zevenbergen, she may have been Gerards housekeeper.

Erasmus was given the highest education available to a man of his day. During his stay there the curriculum was renewed by the principal of the school, for the first time ever Greek was taught at a lower level than a university in Europe, and this is where he began learning it.

He also gleaned there the importance of a relationship with God but eschewed the harsh rules. His education there ended when plague struck the city aboutand his mother, inpoverty forced Erasmus into the consecrated life.

Hippolytus of Rome, a 3rd-century theologian, gave him the title of Apostle of the Apostles, according to Catholic teaching, Peter was ordained by Jesus in the Rock of My Church dialogue in Matthew 16, He is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome and by Eastern Christian tradition also as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a saint and as founder of the Church of Antioch.

The New Testament indicates that Peter was the son of John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis juliuss his brother Andrew was also an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples, originally a fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few dxclusus, such as the Transfiguration.

According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesuss inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, according to Christian tradition, Peter was exclusks in Rome under Emperor Nero Augustus Caesar.

It is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, Tradition holds that he was crucified at the site of the Clementine Chapel. His remains are said to be contained in the underground Confessio of St.

According to Catholic doctrine, the direct successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope. Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, the Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peters preaching and eyewitness memories.

In the Latin translation of the Bible this became Petrus, a form of the feminine petra. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus ministry, Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida and he was named Juliu, son of Jonah or John.

Julius Excluded from Heaven

Guardian angel — A guardian angel is an angel that is assigned to protect and guide a particular person, group, kingdom, or country. Belief in guardian angels can be traced throughout all antiquity, the concept of tutelary angels and their hierarchy was extensively developed in Christianity in the 5th century by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite.

The theology of angels and tutelary spirits has undergone many refinements since the 5th century, belief in both the East and the West is that guardian angels serve to protect whichever person God assigns them to, and present prayer to God on that persons behalf. The belief in guardian angels can be traced throughout all antiquity, pagans such as Menander and Plutarch, the guardian angel concept is present in the books of the Hebrew Bible and the Old Testament, and its development is well marked.


These books described Gods angels as his ministers who carried out his behests, in this latter case, the prince of the kingdom of Persia contends with Gabriel. The same verse mentions Michael, one of the chief princes, in Rabbinic literature, the Rabbis expressed the notion that there are indeed guardian angels appointed by Adonai to watch over people. Lailah is an angel of the night in charge of conception, lailah serves as a guardian angel throughout a persons life and at death, leads the soul into the afterlife.

According to Leo Trepp, in late Judaism, the belief developed that the people have a heavenly representative, every human being has a guardian angel. Previously the term Malakh, angel, simply meant messenger of God, modern rabbis clarify that people might indeed have guardian angels.

In the New Testament the concept of guardian angel may be noted, other examples in the New Testament are the angel who succoured Christ in the garden, and the angel who delivered St. In Acts 12,after Peter had been escorted out of prison by an angel, he went to the home of Mary the mother of John, the servant girl, Rhoda, recognized his voice and ran back to tell the group that Peter was there.

However, the replied, It must be his angel. Hebrews 1,14 says, Are they not all ministering spirits, sent to minister for them, in this view, the function of the guardian angel is to lead people to the Kingdom of Heaven. In the New Testament Epistle of Jude, Michael is described as an archangel, according to Saint Jerome, the concept of guardian angels is in the mind of the Church. He stated, how great the dignity of the soul, since one has from his birth an angel commissioned to guard it.

The first Christian theologian to outline a specific scheme for guardian angels was Honorius of Autun in the 12th century and he said that every soul was assigned a guardian angel the moment it was put into a body.

Scholastic theologians augmented and ordered the taxonomy of angelic guardians, in the 15th century, the Feast of the Guardian Angels was added to the official calendar of Catholic holidays. Papal bull — A Papal bull is a specific kind of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Roman Catholic Church. It is named after the seal that was traditionally appended to the end in order to authenticate it. Papal bulls have been in use at least since the 6th century, but the phrase was not used until around the end of the 13th century, and then only internally for unofficial administrative purposes.

However, it had become official by the 15th century, when one of the offices of the Apostolic Chancery was named the register of bulls, by the accession of Pope Leo IX ina clear distinction developed between two classes of bulls of greater and less solemnity. The majority of the bulls now in existence are in the nature of confirmations of property or charters of protection accorded to monasteries. In an epoch when there was much fabrication of such documents, a Papal confirmation, under certain conditions, could be pleaded as itself constituting sufficient evidence of title in cases where the original deed had been lost or destroyed.

Since the 12th century, Papal bulls have carried a seal with the heads of the Apostles Saint Peter and Saint Paul on one side.

Papal bulls were issued by the Pope for many kinds of communication of a public nature. Papyrus seems to have used almost uniformly as the material for these documents until the early years of the eleventh century. Popularly, the name is used for any Papal document that contains a metal seal, today, the bull is the only written communication in which the Pope will refer to himself as Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei.

For example, when Pope Benedict XVI issued a decree in bull form, while Papal bulls always used to bear a metal seal, they now do so only on the most solemn occasions. A Papal bull is today the most formal julihs of public decree juilus letters patent issued by the Vatican Chancery in the name of the Pope, the body of the text had no specific conventions for its formatting, it was often very simple in layout.

For the most solemn bulls, the Pope signed the document himself, following the signature in this case would be an elaborate monogram, the signatures of any witnesses, and then the seal. Nowadays, a member of the Roman Curia signs the document on behalf of the Pope, usually the Cardinal Secretary of State, and thus the monogram is omitted.

The most distinctive characteristic of a bull was the seal, exclusue was usually made of lead. Each head was surrounded by a circle of globetti, and the rim of the seal was surrounded by a ring of such beads. On the reverse was the name of the issuing Pope in the nominative Latin form, with the letters PP, for Pastor Pastorum.