Joseph Hilyard’s timely new book provides a broad perspective on the oil and gas industry, with primary attention to the United States. It takes the reader on a. : The Oil & Gas Industry: A Nontechnical Guide () by Joseph Hilyard and a great selection of similar New, Used. The Oil & Gas Industry has 8 ratings and 2 reviews. Keren said: Clear illustration, good introduction. But how come the energy books that I’ve read so fa.
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The oil and gas industry: The hilyard.teh and publisher assume no liability whatsoever for any loss or damage that results from the use of any of the material in this book. Use of the material in this book is solely at the risk of the user.
Mary McGee Managing Editor: Stephen Hill Production Manager: Sheila Brock Production Editor: Tony Quinn Book Designer: Includes bibliographical references and index. Petroleum industry and trade. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including and recording, without the josepy written permission of the publisher.
A Nontechnical Guide Appendix A: Terms, Abbreviations, and Acronyms. Organizations, Agencies, and Professional Societies.
The Oil & Gas Industry: A Nontechnical Guide by Joseph Hilyard
My goal has been to create an engaging and accessible introduction to this critically important global industry to help those without a technical background who are either new to the industry or simply interested in how it operates. This book guides the reader through the series of typical decisions made, actions taken, and equipment and processes used to bring petroleum products and natural gas to world markets. I have tried to present information about these various activities in broad but also clear and accurate terms.
However, I have not attempted to describe every operational facet or technical aspect; this level of detail is available from a variety of other sources, a number of which are listed in appendix B. Petroleum can range in color from nearly colorless to jet-black.
It can be thinner than water or thicker than molasses, and its density can vary from that of a light gas to that of a heavy asphalt. For the purposes of this book, the term petroleum is used to collectively describe oil and natural gas, whereas the petroleum industry includes the various entities that perform the range of activities noted in the bulleted list below, as well as those that support those activities.
Chapter 1 describes the geologic processes and structures related to the formation of both crude oil and natural gas within the earth, as well as its movement migration that results in the creation of commercially exploitable accumulations.
Chapters 2 and 3 then focus individually on oil and gas, respectively, providing basic information about their composition, the location of major oil and gas resources around the world, the range of products created from oil and gas, and current patterns of, as well as future projections for, production and use.
A Nontechnical Guide Chapters 4 through 12 address petroleum industry operations: Finally, three appendices provide a listing of terms, abbreviations, and acronyms used in the book; suggested further reading; and organizations that can provide further information on many of the topics covered in this book.
I hope this book helps the reader understand the petroleum industry and makes clear the ingenuity and skill of its millions of professionals worldwide. In the case of petroleum, the origins of crude oil and natural gas can be traced back millions—in fact, tens of millions—of years ago, to the seabed of ancient oceans. A Brief Overview For hydrocarbons to accumulate, three conditions must be met.
Second, the sediments laid down in such basins must contain a high level of organic material. This organic-rich matter becomes part of the sedimentary material to create what is called source rock.
Third, over millions of years, the effects of elevated temperature and pressure must be sufficient to convert the material in the source rock into oil and gas. Maturity describes the degree to which petroleum generation has occurred.
Heavy, thick oil is considered immature, having been generated at relatively low temperature. Mature oil—lighter or less viscous—forms at higher temperature. In an important subsequent process called migration, the hydrocarbons must move out of the source rock through cracks, faults, and fissures and into porous and permeable reservoir rock. A Nontechnical Guide way that immobilizes the hydrocarbons within structures called traps, allowing oil and gas to accumulate in sufficient volumes to warrant commercial exploitation.
Subsea Burial To begin a more detailed look at the pathway to petroleum, it can be said that petroleum geochemists and geologists widely agree that crude oil is derived from ancient organic matter—ranging from single- celled plankton to more-complex aquatic plants e. Organic material carried into the oceans by rivers also is deposited and buried in the same manner.
The buried organic matter undergoes a transformation over millions of years. However, as the sediment layer gets thicker, subsequent bacterial processes at work in deep seabed mud with little or no oxygen present in the mud itself or the water immediately above it convert the remaining organic matter into a waxy material called kerogen.
Kerogen is a complex mixture of large organic molecules whose appearance and characteristics depend on the kind and concentration of materials—such as algae, plankton, bacteria, pollen, resin, and cellulose— of which it is composed. It is from kerogen that oil and gas are generated. Organic matter was not laid down evenly through the various geologic eras table 1—1. Geologic timescale Period Epoch Start of period, millions of years ago Cenozoic era: Black shale is the most common kind of source rock.
A Nontechnical Guide Temperature plays a key role in the generation of oil and gas from kerogen. As the organic-rich source rock undergoes progressive burial i. This phenomenon reflects what is called the geothermal gradient of the earth. From that point down to about meters feetthe gradient is variable, owing to atmospheric influences and circulating groundwater.
Below feet, temperature rises steadily with depth, though the rate of increase varies with location. For tectonically stable shield areas and sedimentary basins, a typical figure is 1. Generation and movement of oil and gas Source: As these various drivers exert their influence, the kerogen in source rock undergoes conversion to petroleum in a process called maturation. At first, this will be wet gas and condensate, with high levels of relatively heavy hydrocarbons.
With further increases in temperature, the gas will become more dry, containing more of the lighter hydrocarbon gases. Abiogenic hydrocarbons About 60 years ago, Russian and Ukrainian scientists postulated an alternative mechanism for the formation of hydrocarbons. The abiogenic inorganic process they envisioned does not involve biological material, but rather the transformation of hydrogen and carbon into oil and gas deep within the outer mantle of the earth.
Austrian-born Thomas Gold —a leading U. Despite tantalizing results from limited laboratory and field experiments, it remains highly speculative. A Nontechnical Guide the source rock and nearby rock layers.
In fact, virtually all commercially viable oil reservoirs result from migration that takes the hydrocarbons away from the source rock and into reservoir rock. Oil very rarely collects in large underground pools of liquid, accumulating instead in the pores of highly permeable reservoir rock. Permeable rock has extensive and well-connected pores that enable eventual substantial hydrocarbon flow to a drilled wellbore. Reservoir rock with good porosity and permeability is generally classified as either a clastic or a carbonate system.
Clastic sediments are formed from fragments of various rocks that were transported and redeposited to create new formations. Sandstones, siltstones, and shales are the most common types. Notable clastic depositions are found in river delta regions, such as along the U. Carbonate rock, in contrast, is typically formed by a chemical reaction between calcium and carbonate ions in shallow seas, or by a process called biomineralization.
The Oil & Gas Industry: A Nontechnical Guide
The most notable example of the industr is the creation of large reefs by marine coral. Carbonate rock also can build up from the constant rain of tiny shell fragments that falls to the sea floor from microorganisms living in the water above. Limestone and dolostone are typical carbonates. Hydrocarbon Traps In a promising hydrocarbon-bearing formation, oil and gas have migrated into what is called a trap. Highly impermeable rocks above and around the trap seal it in a way that prevents any further significant movement of hydrocarbons upward or laterally.
There are three basic types of hydrocarbon traps: One common type is the oio, a smooth, indusry fold. Common kinds of traps Source: A second type of structural trap is the fault trap, created by the displacement of rock layers strata relative to each other. When rock strata have moved mostly horizontally, a strike-slip fault results e. Movement that is mostly vertical and downward creates a normal fault, while vertical upward movement results in a thrust or reverse fault.
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Hydrocarbon accumulations are typically associated with normal and thrust faults. These basic fault types are shown in fig. A Nontechnical Guide Stratigraphic traps Stratigraphic traps are created when a seal or barrier is formed above and around an oil- or gas-bearing formation by sedimentary deposition of impermeable rock. Primary stratigraphic traps include channels and barriers of sandstone in a river delta area, carbonate slopes, coral reefs, and clay-filled channels of dolomite or calcite.
Major oil fields with stratigraphic traps include Prudhoe Bay AlaskaEast Texas, and a supergiant field along the east coast of Lake Maracaibo, in Venezuela. Combination traps Combination traps are formed by a combination of processes that occurred in the sediments during the time of deposition of the reservoir bed. They are also formed by tectonic activity that occurred in the reservoir beds after their deposition. One example of a combination trap is associated with a salt dome—a mass of lighter salt that has pushed upward through heavier surrounding rock and sediments.
Salt beds were formed by the natural evaporation of seawater from an ancient enclosed basin, and the resultant salt layer was then buried by successive layers of sediments over geologic time. The upward push creates an anticlinal type of folding, with reservoir rock frequently found draping the flanks of the salt dome to create conditions for hydrocarbon trapping. Salt itself is impermeable to oil and gas and can contribute to trap creation. As described in later chapters, a cavity can be created in the salt formation itself, comprising an effective storage cavern for hydrocarbon products.
Three conclusions can be drawn from this discussion of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and trapping. Second, oil may in some cases be found above gas. Even though figures 1—2 and 1—3 show gas accumulating above oil in various traps, the situation can be more complicated. Third, as will be discussed in more detail later see chap.
For this reason, most wells pump not only oil and gas but also mineral-laden water called brine. It is extracted from the earth by drilling into geologic structures described in chap. General Composition of Crude Oil Petroleum consists mostly of hydrocarbon molecules, themselves made up of various combinations of hydrogen and carbon atoms.