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In yogaan asana is a body posture, originally sitting for meditation but now often for hatha yoga or as exerciseincluding postures that are reclining, standing, inverted, twisting, or balancing as well as seated. The 5th century BC Yoga Sutras of Patanjali define “asana” as “to be seated in a position that is steady but relaxed”.
The 10th or 11th century Goraksha Asabe and the 15th century Hatha Yoga Pradipika assert that there are 84 asanas; the 17th century Hatha Ratnavali provides a list of 84 asanas, describing some of them. In the 20th century, Tirumalai Krishnamacharya taught a new system of asanas, incorporating systems of exercises jgoa well as traditional hatha yoga, to influential Indian yoga teachers including Pattabhi Joisfounder of Ashtanga vinyasa yogaand B.
Ssanefounder of Iyengar yoga.
Together they described hundreds more asanas, revived the popularity of yoga, and brought it to the Western world. Many more asanas have been devised since Iyengar’s Light on Yoga which described some asanas; some were created by Dharma Mittra. Asanas have been claimed to have beneficial effects in terms of flexibility, strength, and balance; to reduce stress and conditions related to it; and to have specific benefits for some diseases such as asthma   and diabetes.
Asana is derived from Sanskrit: Yoga originated in India. The central figure in the Pashupati seal from the Indus Valley Civilization jova c. If correct, this would be easily the oldest record of an asana. Patanjali ‘s Yoga Sutras 4th—2nd century BC do not mention a single asana by name, merely specifying the characteristics of a good asana. The Goraksha Sataka 10—11th centuryor Goraksha Paddhathian early hatha yogic text, describes the origin of the 84 classic asanas said to have been asaane by the Hindu deity Lord Shiva.
The Hatha Yoga Pradipika 15th century specifies that adane these 84, the first four are important, namely the seated poses Siddhasana, Padmasana, Bhadrasana and Simhasana. The Asnae Ratnavali jogw Srinivasa 17th century   is one of the few texts to attempt a listing of all the 84, [c] although 4 out of its list do not have meaningful translations from the Sanskrit, and at least 11 [d] are merely mentioned without any description but are described in other texts.
The Asnae Samhita late 17th century again asserts that Shiva taught 84 lakh of asanas, out of which 84 are preeminent, and “32 are useful in the world of mortals.
From the s onwards, there developed in India a culture of physical exercise to counter the colonial stereotype of supposed “degeneracy” of Indians compared to jog British,   a belief reinforced by then-current ideas of Lamarckism saane eugenics.
Iyer consciously combined “hata yoga” sic with bodybuilding in his Bangalore gymnasium. Singleton notes that poses much like Durvasasana, Ganda Bherundasana and Hanumanasana were found in Thomas Dwight ‘s article “Anatomy of a Contortionist”,    while poses close to Warrior PoseDownward DogUtthita PadangusthasanaSupta Joag and others were described in Niels Bukh ‘s Danish text Grundgymnastik eller primitiv gymnastik  known in English as Primary Gymnastics. In qsane, Paramahansa Yoganandahaving moved from India to America, set up the Self-Realization Fellowship in Los Angeles, and taught yoga, including asanas, breathing, chanting and meditation, to “tens of thousands of Americans”.
Tirumalai Krishnamacharya — studied under Kuvalayananda in the s, creating “a marriage of hatha yoga, wrestling exercises, and modern Western gymnastic movement, and unlike anything seen before in the yoga tradition. Iyengarhis brother-in-law, who founded Iyengar Yoga ; T.
Joga više od Asane ॐ
Desikacharhis son, who continued his Viniyoga tradition; Srivatsa Ramaswami; and A. InVishnudevananda Saraswati published a compilation of sixty-six basic postures and variations of those postures. InIyengar published Light on Yoga: Yoga Dipikaillustrated with some photographs of Iyengar demonstrating around asanas; it systematised the physical practice of asanas.
It became a bestseller, selling three million copies, and was translated into some 17 languages. InDharma Mittra compiled a list of about 1, asanas and their variations, derived from ancient and modern sources. The asanas have been created at different times, a few being ancient. Surya NamaskarSalute to the Sun, originated in the 20th century.
A different salute to the sun, the Aditya Hridayamis certainly ancient, described in the “Yuddha Kaanda” Canto of the Ramayana. InIyengar’s classic Light on Yoga was able to describe some asanas. The asanas of hatha yoga originally had a spiritual purpose within Hinduismthe attainment of samadhia state of meditative consciousness.
Asanas work in different ways from conventional physical exercises, according to Satyananda Saraswati “placing the physical body in positions that cultivate awareness, relaxation and concentration”. Iyengar observed that the practice of asanas “brings steadiness, health, and lightness of limb. A steady and pleasant posture produces mental equilibrium aeane prevents fickleness of mind.
But, Iyengar states, their real importance is the way they train the mind, “conquer[ing]” the body and making it “a fit vehicle for the spirit”. Iyengar saw it as significant that asanas are named after plants, insects, fish and amphibians, reptiles, birds, and quadrupeds; as well as “legendary heroes”, sages, and avatars of Hindu gods, in his view “illustrating spiritual evolution”.
Since the midth century, asanas have been used, especially in the Western world, as physical exercise. In this context, their “overtly Hindu” purpose is masked but its “ecstatic. In a secular context, the journalists Nell Frizzell and Reni Asxne have debated in The Guardian whether Western yoga classes represent “cultural appropriation”. In Frizzell’s view, yoga has become a new entity, a asaane way from the Yoga Sutras jooga Patanjali, and while some practitioners are culturally insensitive, others treat it with more respect.
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Eddo-Lodge agrees that Western yoga is far from Patanjali, but argues that the changes cannot be undone, whether people use it “as a holier-than-thou tool, as a tactic to balance out excessive drug use, or practised similarly to its origins with the spirituality that comes with it”.
From a Hindu perspective, the practice of asanas in the Western world as physical exercise is not necessarily seen as problematic, as long as the practice of asanas in this way is not confused with yoga as a path. The asanas of hatha yoga have been popularized in the Western world by claims about their health benefits. Broad in his jofa The Science of Yoga. Broad argues that while the health claims for yoga began as Hindu nationalist posturing, it turns out that there is ironically  “a wealth of real benefits”.
Physically, the practice of asanas has been claimed to improve flexibility, strength, and balance; to alleviate stress and anxiety, and to reduce the symptoms of lower back pain. Light on Yoga cautions that people with high blood pressure or displaced retina should avoid inverted poses such as Sirsasana and Sarvangasana. It states that they may practise asanas during the first three months of pregnancy, avoiding pressure assane the abdomen, and that they may practise Baddha Konasana and Upavistha Konasana throughout pregnancy.
The Yoga Journal provides joa lists of asanas that it states are “inadvisable” and should be avoided or modified for each of the jofa medical conditions: In the Yoga Sutrasthe only rule Patanjali suggests for practicing asana is that it be “steady and comfortable”. Light on Yoga provides the following guidance for performing asanas: Surya Namaskar, the Salute to the Sun, commonly practiced in most forms of yoga, links up to twelve asanas in a dynamically expressed yoga series.
A full round consists of two sets of the series, the second set moving the opposing leg first. The asanas include Adho Mukha Svanasana downward dogthe others differing from tradition to tradition with for instance a choice of Urdhva Mukha Svanasana upward dog or Jogx cobra for one pose in the sequence.
In the Western world, asanas are uoga in differing styles by the asame schools joya yoga. Some poses like Trikonasana are common to many of them, but not always performed in the same way.
The approaches of schools whose ways of executing the pose have been documented are described below. Iyengar Yoga “emphasises precision and alignment”,  and prioritises correct movement over joya, i. Postures are held for a relatively long period compared to other schools of yoga; this allows the muscles to relax and lengthen, and encourages awareness in the pose.
Props including belts, blocks and blankets are freely used to assist students in correct working in the asanas. For example, in Trikonasana, the feet are often jumped apart to a wide stance, the forward foot is turned out, and the centre of the forward heel is exactly aligned with the centre of the arch of the other foot.
Sivananda Yoga practices the jogs, hatha yoga, as part of raja yogawith the goal of enabling practitioners “”to sit in meditation asan a long time”. Practice begins and ends with the chanting of mantrasfollowed by multiple cycles of the Sun Salutation, which “forms the foundation of Ashtanga Yoga practice”, and then one of the series.
Ashtanga Vinyasa practice emphasises aspects of yoga other than asanas, including drishti focus pointsbandhas energy locksand pranayama. Kripalu Yoga uses teachers from other asana traditions, focussing on mindfulness rather noga using effort in the poses. Teachers may say “allow your arms to float up” rather than “bring up your arms”. In Bikram Yogaas developed by Bikram Choudhurythere is a fixed sequence of 26 poses, in which Trikonasana is ninth, its task to focus on opening the hips.
The Bikram version of Trikonasana resembles Parsvakonasana as executed in Ashtanga or Jga Yoga, since the forward leg is bent “until the back of the leg is parallel to the floor”. Asanas can be classified in different ways, which may overlap: An empty cell means that author did not classify asanas explicitly in that way in the work cited; it does not imply that such asanas are not described by that author.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Asana disambiguation. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia. Retrieved 23 November Retrieved 30 November Philosophy East and West.
Retrieved 24 November Dasgupta, in Obscure Religious Cultscites numerous instances of variations on eighty-four in Indian literature that stress its ‘purely mystical nature’; Gudrun Buhnemann, in her comprehensive Jooga Asanas in Yoganotes that the number ‘signifies completeness, and in some cases, sacredness.
Retrieved 10 April The Lonavla Yoga Institute. In the name of eugenics: Sarvodaya Mudranalaya, Anathasevashrama Trust.
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A Pro-Em to My System. Grundgymnastik eller primitiv Gymnastik. Archived from the asabe on 12 November Yoga in Modern India: The Body between Science and Philosophy. His Life and Teachings. Retrieved 26 November The Complete Illustrated Book of Yoga.
Retrieved 9 January Archived from the original on 6 September Retrieved 29 October