romantycznej” [On Romantic poetry] is reprinted in Idee programowe romantyków polskich: Antologia [Program ideas of Polish Romantics: an anthology], ed. Historia gospodarcza Polski XIX i XX wieku. Warsaw: Ksiązka i Wiedza. Kowalczykowa, Alina, comp. Idee programowe romantyków polskich: Antologia. Narodziny powieĞci poetyckiej w Polsce [The Rise of Novel in Verse in Poland]. Wrocáaw: Ossolineum In Idee programowe romantyków polskich. Antologia.

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It has been described by one literature scholar, Ignacy Chrzanowskias “Mickiewicz’s first masterpiece”; another scholar, Juliusz Kleinerdisagreed. The theme of the poem is the duties and rights of the youth in the service of an overarching, higher ideal.

Mickiewicz finished the poem inthe year of his debut as a poet, but it was not included in his first tome of poetry, published that year. The work was first published, unauthorized, in Lviv in the Austrian Partition ; the first version authorized by Mickiewicz was published in Paris in Adam Mickiewicz — Adam Bernard Mickiewicz was a Polish poet, dramatist, essayist, publicist, translator, professor of Slavic literature, and political activist.

He is regarded as national poet in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus, a principal figure in Polish Romanticism, he is counted one of Polands Three Bards and is widely regarded as Polands greatest poet. He is also considered one of the greatest Slavic and European poets and has dubbed a Slavic bard.

A leading Romantic dramatist, he has compared in Poland and Europe to Byron. He is known chiefly for the poetic drama Dziady and the epic poem Pan Tadeusz. After, as a consequence, spending five years exiled to central Russia, in he succeeded in leaving the Russian Empire and, like many of his compatriots, lived out the rest of his life abroad.

Adam Mickiewicz was born on 24 Decembereither at his uncles estate in Zaosie near Navahrudak or in Navahrudak itself in what was then part of the Russian Empire and is now Belarus. Adam was the son in the family. Mickiewicz spent his childhood in Navahrudak, initially taught by his mother and he was a mediocre student, although active in games, theatricals, and the like.

In SeptemberMickiewicz enrolled at the Imperial University of Vilnius, after graduating, under the terms of his government scholarship, he taught secondary school at Kaunas from to They were unable to due to his familys poverty and relatively low social status, in addition, she was already engaged to Count Wawrzyniec Puttkamer.

Inwhile still a student, Mickiewicz, Tomasz Zan and other friends had created a secret organization, the group focused on self-education but had ties to a more radical, clearly polsjich student polskkich, the Filaret Association.

Friedrich Schiller — Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life, Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with protramowe already famous and they frequently discussed issues concerning aesthetics, and Schiller encouraged Goethe to finish works he left as sketches.

Ode to Youth

This relationship and these led to a period now referred to as Weimar Classicism. They also worked together on Xenien, a collection of satirical poems in which both Schiller and Goethe challenge opponents to their philosophical vision. Schiller grew up in a religious family and spent much of his youth studying the Bible.

His father was away in the Seven Years War when Friedrich was born and he was named after king Frederick the Great, but he was called Fritz by nearly everyone. Kaspar Schiller was rarely home during the war, but he did manage to visit the family once in a while and his wife and children also visited him occasionally wherever he happened to be stationed. Due to the high cost of living—especially the rent—the family moved to nearby Lorch, although the family was happy in Roomantykw, Schillers father found his work unsatisfying.

Pdogramowe sometimes took his son with him, in Lorch, Schiller received his primary education. The quality of the lessons was fairly bad, and Friedrich regularly cut class with his older sister, because his parents wanted Schiller to become a pastor, they had the pastor of the village instruct the boy in Latin and Greek.

Schillers father had not been programode for three years, and the family had been living on their savings but could no longer afford to do so, so Kaspar Schiller took an assignment to the garrison in Ludwigsburg. There the Schiller boy came to the attention of Karl Eugen and he entered the Karlsschule Stuttgart, inwhere he eventually studied medicine. During most of his life, he suffered from illnesses that he tried to cure himself.

While at the Karlsschule, Schiller read Rousseau and Goethe and discussed Classical ideals with his classmates, the plays critique of social corruption and its affirmation of proto-revolutionary republican ideals astounded its original audience. The uprising began on 29 November in Warsaw when the young Polish polskihc from the local Army of the Congress Polands military academy revolted, led by lieutenant Piotr Wysocki and they were soon joined by large segments of societies of Lithuania, Belarus, and the Right-bank Ukraine.


Despite local successes, the uprising was crushed by a numerically superior Imperial Russian Army under Ivan Paskevich. Tsar Nicholas I decreed that henceforth Poland was a part of Russia, with Warsaw little more than a military garrison.

Romantyzm w pigułce by Szymon Piotrowski on Prezi Next

Prpgramowe the Partitions of Poland, Poland ceased to exist as an independent political entity at the end ofhowever, the Napoleonic Wars and Polish participation in the wars against Russia and Austria resulted in the creation the Duchy of Warsaw in The Congress of Vienna brought that states existence to an end inand essentially solidified the long-term division popskich Poland among Russia, Prussia, United with Russia through a personal union with the Tsar as King of Poland, the province romanntykw elect its own parliament and government.

The kingdom had its own courts, army and treasury, over time, however, the freedoms granted to the Kingdom were gradually taken back and the constitution was progressively ignored by the Russian authorities.

Alexander I of Russia never formally crowned himself as King of Poland, instead, inhe appointed Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich as de facto viceroy, disregarding the constitution.

Soon after the Congress of Vienna resolutions were signed, Russia ceased to respect them, in Alexander I abandoned liberty of the press in Congress Kingdom and introduced censorship. He abolished Polish social and patriotic organizations, the opposition of the Kaliszanie faction.

Although married to a Pole, he was considered as an enemy of the Polish romatnykw.

Also, his command over the Polish Army led to conflicts within the officer corps. These frictions led to various conspiracies throughout the country, most notably within the army, the final spark that ignited Warsaw was a Russian plan to use the Polish Army to suppress Frances July Revolution and the Belgian Revolution, in clear violation of the Polish constitution. The rebels managed to enter the Belweder, but Grand Duke Constantine had escaped in womens clothing, the rebels then turned to the main city arsenal, capturing it after a brief struggle.

The following day, armed Polish civilians forced the Russian troops to north of Warsaw. This incident is called the Warsaw Uprising or the November Night. Taken by surprise by the unfolding of events during the night of 29 November. Lviv — Lviv, the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh largest city in the country overall, is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. Inafter the First partition of Poland, the city became the capital of the Habsburg Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and was renamed to Lemberg, in in a short time was the capital of the West Ukrainian Peoples Republic.

Administratively, Lviv serves as the center of Lviv Oblast and has the status of city of oblast significance. Lviv was the centre of the region of Galicia.

The historical heart of the city, with its old buildings and cobblestone streets, survived Soviet, the city has many industries and institutions of higher education such as Lviv University and Lviv Polytechnic.

Lviv is also the home of many cultural institutions, including a philharmonic orchestra. Lviv is located on the edge of the Roztochia Upland, approximately 70 kilometers from the Polish border and kilometers from the eastern Carpathian Mountains, the average altitude of Lviv is meters above sea level.

Its highest point is the Vysokyi Zamok, meters above sea level and this castle has a commanding view of the historic city centre with its distinctive green-domed churches and intricate architecture. The old walled city was at the foothills of the High Castle on the banks of the River Poltva, in the 13th century, the river was used to transport goods. Lvivs climate is continental with cold winters and mild summers. Lviv approximately receives 1, hours of sunshine annually, archaeologists have demonstrated that the Lviv area was settled by the 5th century.

The area between the Castle Hill and the river Poltva was continuously settled since the 9th century, in it was discovered that the Orthodox church of St. Nicholas had been built on a previously functioning cemetery. Paris — Paris is the capital and most populous city of France.

It has an area of square kilometres and a population of 2, in within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today.

It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created incombining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation.

The city is also a rail, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, notably, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with millions passengers in InParis received The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe.


Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56, gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are also pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC.

The book was first published in June in Paris, and is considered by many to be the last great epic poem in European literature, Pan Tadeusz is recognized as the national epic of Poland. It is compulsory reading in Polish schools, a film based on the poem was made in by Andrzej Wajda. It is written in Polish alexandrines, the place is situated within the Russian partition, in the village of Soplicowo, the country estate of the Soplica clan. Pan Tadeusz recounts the story of two feuding families, and the love between Tadeusz Soplica of one family, and Zosia of the other.

Another sub-plot involves a spontaneous revolt of the inhabitants against the occupying Russian garrison. Since Mickiewicz published his poem as an exile in Paris, he was free of the Russian censors to talk openly about the occupation.

The fact that the Polish national poem begins with the words O Lithuania largely stems from the fact that the 19th-century concept of nationality had not yet been geopoliticized in his time, the term Lithuania used by Mickiewicz refers rather to a geographical region and not country. It had a broader geographic extent than it does now.

He is often regarded by Lithuanians to be of Lithuanian origin, while Belarusians proclaim Mickiewicz to be one of them, all works of Mickiewicz including Pan Tadeusz are in the Polish language.

A full version translation by Marcel Weyland, in the metre, was published in Sydney inLondon. The first translation of the poem into a different language, Belarusian, was made in by the Belarusian writer and dramatist Vintsent Dunin-Martsinkyevich, because of the pressure from Tsarist authorities Dunin-Martshinkyevich was able to only publish the first two chapters of the poem.

See this for English translation by George Noyes Rapall, archive. Pan Tadeusz in Esperanto, translated by Antoni Grabowski. Wikisource — Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.

Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations.

Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24, under the name Project Sourceberg.

The name Wikisource was adopted later that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is also cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products.

Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans. While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question.

Wikisources romantykkw history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts.

The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. rmantykw

OZNAJOMIENIE – Definition and synonyms of oznajomienie in the Polish dictionary

The project was originally eomantykw Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, inthere was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion.

Polskih Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.

Wed want to ormantykw Project Gutenberg–how, exactly, and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone — I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps.