Along with other characteristics of the Neapolitan school, the variation canzona was taken up by the Roman composer, Frescobaldi. Following Frescobaldi the. practice is the fact that canzona trigesimasesta detta la Capponcina (Masotti) had been previously printed by. Frescobaldi as canzon terza in his volume. Three original editions of Frescobaldi’s Canzoni exist: Girolamo’s set of partbooks and a version in score by his student Bartolomeo Grassi, “Organista in S.
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Musicological interest has historically focused on the development of the sonata, above all the solo and trio sonatas. This emphasis has led to the comparative neglect and undervaluation of genres and instrumental combinations that do not apparently feed into this retrospectively defined mainstream.
In fact, however, instrumental music for a variety of media in a basically conservative idiom was an important part of Italian musical production past the middle of the seventeenth century, as witness the works published by Francesco Cavalli inmany of which might have been composed half a century earlier as far as their outward style is concerned. Since neither of the editions is more precisely dated, their priority is unclear. Lucca was a political anomaly: Its form of government, established inwas an oligarchy.
The religious character of Lucca was also anomalous. Although the seat of a bishopric, it had been a refuge of heretics in the canxona century, and in the seventeenth the city continued to refuse to admit the Inquisition and the Society frescobwldi Jesus. These titles commemorate 1 notable citizens or families of Lucca 2 musician friends of Grassi 3 humors e.
Perhaps the two editions served complementary purposes and Frescobaldi and his student were working in collaboration. In both editions of the canzonas are arranged according to medium with similar but not identical repertories. One legacy of the older ensemble canzona is the anomalous role of the obbligato bass throughout the Canzoni. Even where the bass is the only solo part, it generally follows the continuo line or the continuo is a reduction of the bass line and rarely engages in independent figuration.
Where two frescobalci are employed, they frequently alternate with each other over the canozna line:. In the part-books the basso continuo is allotted to the organ; of the first four canzonas for canto solo and continuo, three are assigned to violin or cornett, the fourth to violin. As is often the case with synoptic editions, not all the necessary information is available in any one source.
The general formal outline of these ensemble canzonas follows the expanded framework of the keyboard canzonas in the Toccate. They proceed by a series of sections contrasting in meter, tempo, and sometimes dynamics, each defined by a full or half-cadence on the tonic or a related degree. Variation techniques are the basis of thematic manipulation in these canzonas, and many of them are strict variation-canzonas in which the material of all the component sections is derived from the opening subject.
The number and variety of sections are greater than those of the keyboard canzonas, and where repetitions are indicated they show less stereotyped patterns. The ensemble canzonas display a number of triple mensurations and notations DarbellayI, These may be compared with a synopsis of the triple mensurations given by Stembridge in the prefaces to the keyboard volumes Toccate I and the Capricci Stembridge and Some aspects of the Canzoni show the influence of contemporary instrumental publications.
An adagio beginning may also be implied by a subsequent allegro marking. Within the boundaries of the genre, the canzonas for each of the various combinations of parts differ in detail from each other. The first three fresccobaldi of the canzona, two imitative allegros with a central adagio half-cadence on E, make up a larger organization ending with an adagio cadence on the tonic A, thus creating a tonal contrast within a context of overall balances that is characteristic of the collection.
The allegro sections frescoba,di the canzona are imitative in texture, the adagios free and more or less ornamental and probably embellished ex tempore. The imitative material of the allegros is all derived from the opening motif of a descending fourth and its tonal answer, a descending fifth, followed by a leap of a third and stepwise movement.
The last section opens with an inversion of the opening descending motif now spelled chromatically mm. A delightful echo coda ends frescobadi canzona piano mm. Perhaps owing to the experimental nature of the medium, the canzonas for bass solo rely less on variation techniques than on the juxtaposition of a number of contrasting sections.
These include extended free sections, interspersed passages in triple and compound meters, and soloistic improvisatory passaggi:. In the canzonas for two basses and continuo the outlines of the bass and continuo are similar, and the alternation of the two solos again often reduces the texture to a single line. In the fourth canzona for two basses, for example, frescobladi the first imitative section the second bass presents a long, almost recitative-like phrase, answered by the first.
As they dialogue the phrases alternate more rapidly, and finally the two parts intertwine at the cadence. This type of dialogue recurs twice again in the canzona, finally emerging to dominate the frescobzldi section, an extended passage in consistent figuration:.
In these works the coalescence canzonw the various bass lines is most emphasized; this may have been mitigated in performance cazona a frfscobaldi realization which took an active part in the development of motivic material. The fact that some canzonas begin with the continuo doubling the C in an upper register, after which it enters in the bass, suggests that canzoba opening line may have been continued in the frecsobaldi as an improvised polyphonic counterpoint.
Number 34 was reinstated in the collection. In the works common to the two editions there are notable textual differences.
Perhaps because they are closest in medium to the keyboard canzona, a genre in which Frescobaldi had worked for over a decade, his four-part CATB canzonas as a group show a firm touch in combining striking effects for the upper parts with significant participation in the musical fabric for all the voices.
The texture of these works is imitative, and they are more tightly contrapuntal than the other canzonas, reflecting the archaizing tendency of the four-part medium. The canzona is a strict variation canzona, laid out in regular alternation of duple frescobaldo triple meter sections, in all of which the subject is clearly recognizable:. Even though some of these sections close on D rather than on the tonic G, the latter is immediately reestablished.
The revised canzona contains only three sections, the second in triple meter and cadencing on B-flat, reached from the quoted material by a transition which effects a real modulation.
The material is more subtly derived from the initial motif, internal divisions are overlapped, and a short hocketing coda forms an idiomatic close:.
Frescboaldi three works that Grassi added to his edition of the Canzoni are mostly of paramusical interest. They all specify the spinettina or lute as an alternative —perhaps an instrument at higher pitch, quint or four-foot, or a small gut-strung harpsichord.
Girolamo Frescobaldi – Wikipedia
Agazzari includes the spinetto among ornamental rather than fundamental instruments, and Frescobaldi treats it as a melody instrument in both hands above a basso continuo.
The toccata for spinettina and violin is a canzona preceded by a rhapsodic section that functions like the introductory toccata of the canzoan pieces.
frescobalci He concludes that the only possible dates are March-May and July-August of The question is further complicated by whether the date frescobalri January is more venetowhere the year begins on March 1, in which case it would be ouror more universale.
Arnaldo Morelli notes that the works of Roman authors published in Venice in January and February were nonetheless dated in modern style Darbellay II, ix. However, Darbellay cajzona the fact that the date may be undependable in any case: A comparison of the edition with those of shows far-reaching alterations frescobaldk several categories see Table The relations between the and collections range from transfer, essentially unaltered, through more or less extensive revision, to suppression of previous canzonas in favor of new ones see Tables Darbellay hypothesizes that Frescobaldi had originally planned a second volume of canzoni, traces of which survive in the discarding of all of the canzonas for basso solo and all but one of the canzonas for four instruments.
Volume II presents the canzonas that were substantially modified in and the new ones added, which Darbellay considers the survivors of a projected Secondo libro.
A comparison of a canzona with its later reworking shows how complex these revisions can be. The next adagio of the original is expanded from six fresscobaldi to ten, and instead of the passage-work which concludes the first version, there are two new sections, an allegro and a tripla black In general, these revised solo bass canzonas contain much less of the expressive instrumental declamation evident in the earlier versions.
The number of sections per canzona tends to increase, especially the rfescobaldi passages. In the canzonas for canto and two basses, on the other hand, the alternations between homophony and counterpoint in the revised first canzona, the chromatic adagio of the new third, and the processional opening and echo effects of the new fourth all increase the sensuous effect of the works. Here they are treated as variation-canzonas: The basso continuo presents the original version of the bass line, and the instrumental bass participates in the web of short imitative patterns woven by the upper parts while maintaining the outlines of the original pattern under the decoration.
The finale of the Romanesca is almost a gigue:. Unlike the keyboard capriccio on the Ruggiero, in the Ruggiero canzona the material in the upper parts is not derived from the bass, with one striking exception. This dislocation is finally remedied by the bass, which finishes the canzona by completing the original interrupted cadence:. The remaining four canzonas are among the most successful works in the collection. Like the two on bass patterns, they are tightly woven contrapuntal works that develop one or a pair of motives imitatively in a series of closed sections.
While these sections may contrast greatly in character, much of the thematic material is consistent, frescobbaldi a penchant on the part of the composer for quartal themes. In others, thematic opposition is created as in Canzona IV, where Frescobaldi introduces a narrow chromatic motif in the last section as a foil to the open fourths and fifths of the first two sections.
Unlike earlier canzonas, no sections are repeated, and no tempo alterations are indicated although Canzonas IV, mm. Canzonas III and IV open with chordal passages rather than the usual imitation, and all except the last canzona contain passages in which a full chordal texture is presented as a contrast to the prevailing imitative one.
In canona, these last four-part canzonas and many of the revisions of the other canzonas show Frescobaldi moving away from the more obvious effects of contemporary instrumental music to a renewed concern with concision without shortness of breath and extension without prolixity evident in his last works.
No other genre engaged his attention from the very beginning of his career until, in a sense, beyond its end. And yet the Canzoni are still the least-known part of his ouevre. Where two basses are employed, they frequently alternate with each other over frescobaldk continuo line: Canzona decimaquarta, detta la Marina, mm. These include extended free sections, interspersed passages in triple and compound meters, and soloistic improvisatory passaggi: This type of dialogue recurs twice again in the canzona, finally emerging to dominate the last section, an extended passage in consistent figuration: Perhaps Della Valle gives a hint of this when he writes: Those who sing and play well in ensembles have to give the tempo one to another, and they have to play rather with charming imitations than with too subtle contrapuntal artifices Solerti The canzona trescobaldi a strict variation canzona, laid out in regular alternation of duple and triple meter sections, in all of which the subject is clearly recognizable: Canzona terza, Recercari,mm.
The material is more subtly derived from the initial motif, internal divisions are overlapped, and a short hocketing coda forms an idiomatic close: Comparison of the and canzona repertories: The canzonas and the frescobalid The next adagio of the original is expanded from six breves to ten, and instead of the passage-work which concludes the first version, there are two new sections, an allegro and a tripla black 3: The finale of the Romanesca is almost a gigue: This dislocation is finally remedied by the bass, which finishes the canzona by completing the original interrupted cadence: Prefatory Material, 9a-b, 10, The Canzoni are now available in a two-volume edition by Etienne Darbellay with the assistance of Christine Jeanneret Darbellay The Grassi edition and the Venice part-books are published in facsimile Il primo libro delle canzoniRome: Darbellayvol Cwnzona, p.
II of Darbellay contains the new or substantially reworked pieces from Vincenti. See also Harper and Harper Frescobladi this is accurate, all the more reason for a publication highlighting the preeminent families of the city. Darbellay xix notes the change of order and initial content between the two versions: