PDF | Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained de la producción mundial de enzimas está destinada a la obtención de proteasas. The meat that is submerged with bromelain enzyme solution gives “Pengaruh Proses Perendaman Dalam Larutan Enzim Papain dan. Bromelain (from pineapples) 2 mAnson U/mg for biochemistry EC CAS , pH 5 (50 g/l, H₂O, 20 °C). – Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data.
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Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple. Fruit bromelain and stem bromelainare prepared differently and they contain different enzymatic composition.
In bfomelain and in vivo studies demonstrate that bromelain exhibits various fibrinolytic, antiedematous, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory brlmelain. Bromelain is considerably absorbable in the body without losing its proteolytic activity and without producing any major side effects. Bromelain accounts for many therapeutic benefits like the treatment of angina pectoris, bronchitis, sinusitis, surgical trauma, and thrombophlebitis, debridement of wounds, and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly antibiotics.
It also relieves osteoarthritis, diarrhea, and various cardiovascular disorders. Bromelain also possesses some anticancerous activities and promotes apoptotic cell death. This paper reviews the important properties and therapeutic applications of bromelain, along with the possible mode of action. Pineapple is the common name of Ananas comosus syns. Pineapple is the leading edible member of the family Bromeliaceae, grown in several tropical and subtropical countries including Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Kenya, India, and China.
It has been used as a medicinal plant in several native cultures [ 1 ] and these medicinal qualities of pineapple are attributed to bromelain EC 3.
Quantity and Quality of Bromelain in Some Indonesian Pineapple Fruits
Bromelain has been chemically known since and is used as a phytomedical compound [ 2 ]. Bromelain concentration is high in pineapple stem, thus necessitating its extraction because, unlike the pineapple fruit which is normally used as food, the stem is a waste byproduct and thus inexpensive [ 3 ].
A wide range of therapeutic benefits have been claimed for bromelain, such as reversible inhibition of platelet aggregation, sinusitis, surgical traumas [ 4 ], thrombophlebitis, pyelonephriti angina pectoris, bronchitis [ 5 ], and enhanced absorption of drugs, particularly of antibiotics [ 67 ].
Several studies have been carried out indicating that bromelain has useful phytomedical application. However, these results are yet to be amalgamated and critically compared so as to make out whether bromelain will gain wide acceptance as a phytomedical supplement [ 8 ].
Bromelain acts on fibrinogen giving products that are similar, at least in effect, to those formed by plasmin [ 9 ]. Experiment in mice showed that antacids such as sodium bicarbonate preserve the proteolytic activity of bromelain in the gastrointestinal tract [ 10 ].
Bromelain is considered as a food supplement and is freely available to the general public in health food stores and pharmacies in the USA and Europe [ 11 ].
Existing evidence indicates that bromelain can be a promising candidate for the development of future oral enzyme therapies for oncology patients [ 12 ]. Bromelain can be absorbed in human intestines without degradation and without losing its biological activity [ 1213 ]. The crude aqueous extract from enzi, and fruit of pineapple is known as bromelain.
It is a mixture of different thiol endopeptidases and other components like phosphatases, glucosidase, peroxidases, cellulases, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, and several protease inhibitors [ 14 ].
The enzymatic activities of bromelain comprise a wide spectrum with pH range of 5. Nowadays, bromelain is prepared from cooled pineapple juice by centrifugation, ultrafiltration, and enzin. The process yields a yellowish powder, the enzyme activity of which is determined with different substrates such as casein FIP unitgelatin gelatin digestion unitsor chromogenic tripeptides [ 7171920 ].
Properties and Therapeutic Application of Bromelain: A Review
In a study carried out by Castell et al. In a recent study, it was demonstrated that 3. Clinical studies have shown that bromelain may help in the treatment of several disorders. Bromelain prevents or minimizes the severity of angina pectoris and transient ischemic attack TIA. It is useful in the prevention and treatment of thrombophlebitis.
It may also break down cholesterol plaques and exerts a potent fibrinolytic activity. Cardiovascular diseases CVDs include disorders of the blood vessels and heart, coronary heart disease heart attackscerebrovascular disease strokeraised blood pressure hypertensionperipheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, heart failure, and congenital heart disease bromekain 24 ].
Bromelain has been effective in the treatment of CVDs as it is an inhibitor of blood platelet aggregation, thus minimizing the risk of arterial thrombosis and embolism [ 25 ]. Bromelain supplement could reduce any of risk factors that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease.
From this reduction in AAD outcomes it was suggested that bromelain may have similar effects in the treatment of human asthma and hypersensitivity disorders [ 27 ].
In another study, carried out by Juhasz et al. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in Western countries; in USA prevalence of osteoarthritis ranges from 3. A combination of bromelain, trypsin, and rutin was compared to diclofenac in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. After six weeks, both treatments resulted in significant and similar reduction in the pain and inflammation [ 30 ]. Bromelain is a food supplement that may provide an alternative treatment to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug NSAIDs [ 31 ].
It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of arthritis [ 32 ]. Bromelain has analgesic properties which are thought to be the result of its direct influence on pain mediators such as bradykinin [ 3334 ]. The earliest reported studies investigating bromelain were a series of case reports on 28 patients, with moderate or severe rheumatoid or osteoarthritis [ 35 ].
Bromelain has been recommended as an adjuvant therapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic inflammatory, malignant, and autoimmune diseases [ 36 ]. Moreover, there is evidence that oral therapy with bromelain produces certain analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, which is one of the most common autoimmune diseases [ 46 ].
Bromelain influences blood coagulation by increasing the serum fibrinolytic ability and by inhibiting the synthesis of fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting [ 47 ]. In rats, the reduction of serum fibrinogen level by bromelain is dose dependent. At a higher concentration of bromelain, both prothrombin time PT and activated partial thromboplastin time APTT are markedly prolonged [ 48 ].
In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that bromelain is an effective fibrinolytic agent as it stimulates the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, resulting in increased fibrinolysis by degrading fibrin [ 4950 ].
Evidence has suggested that bromelain counteracts some of the effects of certain intestinal pathogens like Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli, whose enterotoxin causes diarrhoea in animals. Other studies suggest a different mechanism of action. Recent studies have shown that bromelain has the capacity to modify key pathways that support malignancy. Presumably, the anticancerous activity of bromelain is due to its direct impact on cancer cells and their microenvironment, as well as on the modulation of immune, inflammatory, and haemostatic systems [ 12 ].
Most of the in vitro and in vivo studies on anticancer activity of bromelain are concentrated on mouse and human cells, both cancerous and normal, treated with bromelain preparations. In an experiment conducted by Beez et al chemically induced mouse skin papillomas were treated with bromelain and they observed that it reduced tumor formation, tumor volume and caused apoptotic cell death [ 54 ].
In one study related to bromelain treatment of gastric carcinoma Kato III cell lines, significant reduction of cell growth was observed [ 55 ] while in another study bromelain reduced the invasive capacity of glioblastoma cells and reduced de novo protein synthesis [ 56 ].
Bromelain is found to increase the expression of p53 and Bax in mouse skin, the well-known activators of apoptosis [ 54 ]. Bromelain also decreases the activity of cell survival regulators such as Akt and Erk, thus promoting apoptotic cell death in tumours.
Bromelain markedly has in vivo antitumoural activity for the following cell lines: In these studies, intraperitoneal administration of bromelain after 24 hours of tumour cell inoculation resulted in tumour regression [ 54 ].
Administration of bromelain before a surgery can reduce the average number of days for complete disappearance of pain and postsurgery inflammation [ 6465 ]. Trials indicate that bromelain might be effective in reducing swelling, bruising, and pain in women having episiotomy [ 66 ]. Nowadays, bromelain is used for treating acute inflammation and sports injuries [ 31 ].
BROMELAIN | Wilson D Putra –
Bromelain contains escharase which is responsible for this effect. Escharase is nonproteolytic bromelan has no hydrolytic enzyme activity against normal protein substrate or various glycosaminoglycan substrates. Its activity varies greatly with different preparations [ 67 ]. In two different enzymatic debridement studies carried out in porcine model, using different bromelain-based agents, namely, Debriding Gel Dressing DGD and Debrase Gel Dressing showed rapid removal of the necrotic layer of the dermis with preservation of the unburned tissues [ 6869 ].
Enzymatic debridement using bromelain is better than surgical debridement as surgical incision is painful, nonselective and exposes the patients to the risk of repeated anaesthesia and significant bleeding [ 71 — 74 ]. According to Taussig et al. Bromelain has a wide range of therapeutic benefits, but the mode of its action is not properly understood.
It is proved that bromelain is well absorbed in body after oral administration and it has no major side effects, even after prolonged use. All the evidences reviewed in this paper suggest that bromelain can be used as an effective health supplement to prevent cancer, diabetes, and various cardiovascular diseases in the long run. Bromelain can be a promising candidate for the development of oral enzyme therapies for oncology patients. It is clear from bromelaih paper that bromelain is a multiaction enzyme; however, more research is required to understand the proper mechanism of action of bromelain so that the multiaction activities of bromelain bro,elain be harnessed efficiently.
They are also thankful to all faculty members of the Institute of Biomedical Education and Research, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh, India, for their generous help and suggestions during the paper preparation. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU.
Journal List Biotechnol Res Int v. Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 25; Accepted Nov This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which enim unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Bromelain belongs to a group of protein digesting enzymes obtained commercially from the fruit or stem of pineapple.
Introduction Pineapple is the common name of Ananas comosus syns. Biochemical Properties The crude aqueous extract from stem and fruit of pineapple is known as bromelain.
Medicinal Uses Clinical studies have shown that bromelain may help in the treatment of several disorders. Effects of Bromelain on Cardiovascular and Circulation Bromelain prevents or minimizes the severity of angina pectoris and transient ischemic attack TIA.
Bromelain Relieves Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in Western countries; in USA prevalence of osteoarthritis ranges from 3.
Effect of Bromelain on Immunogenicity Bromelain has been recommended as an adjuvant therapeutic approach in the treatment of chronic inflammatory, malignant, and autoimmune diseases [ 36 ].
Effect of Bromelain on Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis Bromelain influences blood coagulation by increasing the serum fibrinolytic ability and by inhibiting the synthesis of fibrin, a protein involved in blood clotting [ 47 ]. Effects of Bromelain on Diarrhea Evidence has suggested that bromelain counteracts some of the effects of certain intestinal pathogens like Vibrio cholera and Escherichia coli, whose enterotoxin causes diarrhoea in animals.
Effect of Bromelain on Cancer Cells Recent studies have shown that bromelain has the capacity to modify key pathways that support malignancy. Role of Bromelain in Surgery Administration of bromelain before a surgery can reduce the average number of days for complete disappearance of pain and postsurgery inflammation [ 6465 ].
Toxicity of Bromelain According to Taussig et al. Conclusion Bromelain has a wide range of therapeutic benefits, but the mode of its action is not properly understood. Future Trends and Perspectives Bromelain can be a promising candidate for the development of oral enzyme therapies for oncology patients.
Evaluation of acute anti-inflametry effect of Ananas Comosus leaf extract in Rats. Taussig SJ, Batkin S.