Infantile esotropia is a form of ocular motility disorder where there is an inward turning of one or both eyes, commonly referred to as crossed. Resumen. Este ensayo reporta la presencia de Incomitancia Horizontal tanto en su forma pasiva como activa en pacientes con endotropia congénita y que. Characterization and classification of esotropia and its management with botulinum toxin. Article · January Maniobras exploratorias en la endotropia congénita.

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Esotropia is an inward turning of one or both eyes. Infantile esotropia begins at birth or during the first year of life. Infantile esotropia is also called congenital esotropia [See figure 1]. The cause of infantile esotropia is unknown.

We know there is an inability to use the two eyes together. Usually patients with infantile esotropia have equal visual acuity.

American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

If one eye is turned more frequently than the other, there is increased risk for the development of amblyopia. Amblyopia is poor vision in an eye that is structurally normal.

It occurs because the brain ignores input from an eye. When an infant looks congwnita either eye an equal amount of time, the risk of amblyopia is less. Prematurity, hydrocephalus, seizure disorders, developmental delay, intraventricular hemorrhage and a family history of strabismus are among the risk factors for the development of infantile esotropia.


All children with these or other risk factors should be evaluated by an ophthalmologist. Ensotropia fixation is the use of the right eye to view the left visual field and the use of the left eye endotrppia view the right visual field. This behavior is very common in children with infantile esotropia.

Cross fixation often causes the appearance of not looking directly at a target and parents often wonder if vision is reduced.

Children with infantile esotropia are usually not more nearsighted or farsighted than those without crossing. However, if farsighted, spectacles may be prescribed.

Infantile Esotropia

Infantile esotropia is usually treated with strabismus surgery eye muscle surgery. Recently, botulinum toxin has been used in select cases. Surgery is performed when any associated amblyopia has been treated and the amount of esotropia is stable.

Surgery performed prior to 2 years of age has been found to give better visual prognosis.

The reoperation rate is variable. Most children with infantile esotropia demonstrate a deficit of depth perception when old enough to be tested reliably. If esotropia is corrected before 2 years of age, there is a better chance of developing the ability to use both eyes together, which is referred to as binocularity.

Many develop some degree of dissociated vertical divergence DVD. DVD is an upward drifting of the eyes that is usually most prominent in one eye. Some children become significantly farsighted as they grow and develop accommodative esotropia. Fortunately, accommodative esotropia can usually be treated with spectacles. Some children develop a slowly increasing outward drift of the eyes called exotropia.


There are surgical and nonsurgical treatments available for exotropia.

Latent nystagmus may be present. This is a small, rhythmic, horizontal movement of the eyes when one eye is closed or covered. Unilateral vision may be decreased by the nystagmus but bilateral vision vision with both eyes open is typically not affected.

Occasionally a vertical acting eye muscle inferior oblique may overact which may cause the eye to move up when looking to the side.

For example, the right eye moves up when it looks toward the nose. In certain circumstances, eye muscle surgery may be indicated to correct the problem. American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

What is infantile esotropia?

Infantile Esotropia — AAPOS

Why does infantile esotropia occur? Is infantile esotropia associated with vision loss?

What issues are related to a higher risk for developing infantile esotropia? What is cross fixation? Do infants with infantile esotropia need glasses?

How is infantile esotropia treated? At what age should surgery for infantile esotropia be done? Will more than one surgery be required? Will my baby have good depth perception when older?

Are other eye alignment problems associated with infantile esotropia? Professional Membership Log-In Fill in your username and password and select an action.