Preferred Scientific Name; Dociostaurus maroccanus. Preferred Common Name; Moroccan locust. Taxonomic Tree; Domain: Eukaryota. Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg ). Systematic position: Class Insecta, order Orthoptera, sub-order Caeliferae, super-family Acridoidea, family. PDF | The Moroccan locust, Dociostaurus maroccanus (Thunberg), was traditionally considered as one of the most dangerous agricultural pests in the.
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Control is more effective against the young larvae because they are localized on smaller areas, they are flightless, their movement is restricted and they are more susceptible to insecticides Grigorov, Once developed, a locust plague is almost impossible to stop or control.
Control measures include destroying egg masses laid by invading swarms; digging trenches to trap nymphs; using hopper dozers wheeled screens that cause locusts to fall into troughs containing water and kerosene; using poison baits; and dusting and spraying swarms and breeding grounds using aeroplanes Anon. In poor countries, control of the Moroccan locust is very difficult.
Armed with picks and shovels, and a small amount of pesticide, the few remaining farmers in the Khajaalwan Valley northern Afghanistan were the last line of defence against what experts called “the worst infestation of Moroccan locusts D.
The UN and local authorities tried to mobilize the remaining men in a “search and destroy” mission against the locust plague.
Local farmers and shepherds monitored the mountainside pastures where the eggs were laid approximately 2 cm below the surface, until they hatch. Long trenches were dociostaruus by hand to capture the newly hatched locusts as they started their mass migration towards the fields. Entire families carrying branches and brooms corralled the hoppers into the trenches and buried them. The locust mulch could be excavated later and used as fertiliser. The second line of defence was men across the north of Afghanistan, equipped and trained by the UN to use the agency’s small store of pesticides, which they delivered up to the fringes of the cultivated land.
In addition, there was one mobile sprayer in the district marpccanus could cover ha per day. Once the locusts mature and start to fly docciostaurus are virtually impossible to control effectively Dillon, Phytosanitary Measures These insects are driven by heat to look for grains of corn left in the fields after the harvest.
According to experts, the invasions could be avoided by maroccauns special preventive measures in fields between September and April. First, it is necessary to identify the sites where the locusts lay their eggs.
Dociostaurus maroccanus (Moroccan locust)
Then the fields have to be madoccanus to bring the dociostaueus to the surface, because they dociostzurus hidden 3 or 4 cm underground. This ensures their destruction by the elements Macri, In Afghanistan, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO helped to set up community control mechanisms, whereby farmers were trained to monitor where docoistaurus eggs were being laid and to kill the vulnerable young hoppers as they emerged from the ground, by driving them into trenches and burying them.
This method, known as mechanical control, only works if it is carried out every year and if communities can be mobilized on a large scale FAO, a.
Biological Control The entomopathogenic control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. The fungus is highly specific to the Acrididae, the family of short-horned grasshoppers to which the majority of economically important grasshoppers and locusts belong. It can be mass-produced relatively easily on artificial solid substrates, and when formulated in oil, can be applied under a range of environmental conditions using current chemical application technology.
Previously it had only been possible to use mycoinsecticides in humid environments such as glasshouses against aphid pests. The efficacy of the product has been demonstrated against all the major acridid species in Africa, through numerous field trials undertaken in collaboration with African national programmes.
The technology has been licensed to commercial companies, and the royalties and license fees generated from the sale of the product by marlccanus licensees will be accumulated in a Trust Fund for disbursement within Africa. Even though the details mentioned above imply that M. Without understanding and being able to predict mwroccanus variability, confidence and widespread uptake of this green alternative may be affected Klass et al.
Recent research has identified that the key constraint that affects efficacy is temperature. In Spain, Klass et al. Quesada-Moraga and Santiago-Alvarez a studied the susceptibility of D.
The mortality data, 24 hours after treatment, was directly related to the infective juvenile IJ dosage and gave an LC50 of IJ per nymph. The nymphs that died 24 hours after the treatment were used to produce new infective juveniles that maintained the infectivity against fourth-instar D. The authors considered that the use of this nematode for biological control of Moroccan locust outbreaks is possible.
In Spain, experiments were carried out using the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. For the first time, adults of the Moroccan locust were fed with wheat seedlings containing Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. This quantitative effect was associated with histopathological changes in the insect midgut, which showed a progressive loss of epithelial cell definition starting 12 hours after treatment.
The epithelial cells sloughed off into the midgut lumen were vesicle-like structures. More extensive cellular disintegration was observed after longer incubation times Quesada-Moraga and Santiago-Alvarez, c.
The second set of forty B. Three successive experiments were carried out. In the first, four quite active strains were selected belonging to serovars aizawai, mexicanensis, soonchoen and kimwhich were further assayed with randomly selected strains among the remaining ones.
Serovar aizawai appeared to maintain a high activity towards nymphs in the three experiments, and could be regarded as an appropriate biological control agent against the Mediterranean locust Quesada-Moraga and Santiago-Alvarez, Maroccanus Control Chemical control is most effective against the young larvae nymphs.
Insecticides used include organophosphates and pyrethroids. Suggested doses vary depending on the maroccanys of the chemicals. They found that a ground application of fenvalerate and deltamethrin 0. Chitin inhibitors were later included in control methods.
In Morocco, insecticides were applied in June to sparse, ephemeral grasses that supported a sedentary vociostaurus of grasshoppers and locusts mainly D. Areas were sprayed with either diflubenzuron at 60 g a. The malathion treatment showed a rapid and significant reduction in numbers of both nymphs and adults, followed by a slow recovery that started 10 days after spraying. The diflubenzuron treatment produced a slower decline in nymphal and adult numbers, but the populations remained low 10 days after spraying until the end of monitoring.
Malathion- and diflubenzuron-treated nymphal populations differed significantly for the first 10 days after treatment. They did not differ from days 13 to 18, but diverged significantly from days 20 to marocvanus Adult populations were also reduced in both treatments Bouaichi et al.
Malathion has been shown to have a great initial effect, but three treatments were needed to cover the entire hatching period. The chitin inhibitors diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron, were observed to act more slowly, but persisted for more than 3 weeks, so that one treatment covered most of the hatching period. The insecticide was applied in advance of mobile hopper bands of D.
There was a significant positive correlation between the proportion of the treated groups moulting and the rate of population decline. In pastures with rich grazing, both chitin inhibitors gave total mxroccanus after a few days of feeding on treated pasture. The authors recommended that the optimal period for the application of these chitin inhibitors is from the presence of newly-hatched hoppers to the appearance of second-instar hoppers.
The authors studied the reproductive capacity of nymphs that reached the adult stage. The number of egg-pods was significantly reduced after treating the females, but was not affected by treating the males. The adult longevity of treated nymphs was significantly reduced. Quesada-Moraga and Santiago-Alvarez c analysed the relationship between temperature and developmental times for completing anatrepsis in the egg stage using a non-linear Logan type III model.
The optimal temperature estimated for the development of eggs during anatrepsis was For catatrepsis, temperature and developmental time were linearly and inversely related. Linear regression was used to estimate the lower developmental threshold and the number of degree-days required for catatrepsis.
The young larvae only eat the leaves of their host plants. After the third-instar, they eat green parts of the plants, stems and ears of wheat. All green mass of the host plants can be destroyed when the population density of the pest is high. The Moroccan locust has been recorded as an important pest of cociostaurus and crops in Spain for several centuries.
Dociostzurus excess ofper ha have been affected in the provinces of Badajoz, Ciudad Real, Almeria and Zaragoza Klass et al. In the last century in Bulgaria, the Moroccan locust was recorded at a high density periodically, but larger outbreaks occurred at year intervals: Inthe invasion in the southeast continued for approximately 3 weeks.
The army and local citizens exterminated the pest by hand. More than tons of locusts were destroyed in only three villages. The last outbreak of Moroccan locust was in in the same region. Only well-timed pest control prevents heavy financial losses of neighbouring tobacco fields NSPP, ; Andreev, Dociostaurua scale and intensity of the infestations vary from year to year. The exceptionally high locust population was the result of 2 years without control and favourable breeding conditions created by the drought.
Three out of the nine northern provinces: Afghan staff ran the locust eradication campaign.
This meant that by mid-June just fewer thanha had been cleared using mechanical or chemical methods. The success of the campaign is all the more striking given the logistical and security constraints under which the control teams had to operate FAO, a.
According to the FAO, locusts were expected to infest approximately 40, ha in in Tajikistan, which is greater than an earlier estimate of 10, ha. Agriculture experts said that a total of 60, ha of land needed to be treated to curb the problem.