Revista Iberoamericana para la Investigación y el Desarrollo Educativo. ISSN Slocum, ; Puga y Martínez, ; y Whetten y Cameron, Palabras clave: competencias, conocimiento, habilidades, actitudes y valores. Abstract. Results 1 – 16 of 35 by David A. Whetten and Cameron,Kim S. . Desarrollo de Habilidades Directivas / Management Skills Development (College). 1 January. Palabras clave: gestión del conocimiento, habilidades directivas, . Based on the theory of Whetten y Cameron (), this study re-grouped directive abilities .. del conocimiento organizativo: desarrollo, medición y gestión de intangibles.

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Octubre – Marzo Less. Octubre – Marzo economics, education and culture, where reality changes at unthinkable speed. This also impacts public universities, which as dynamic organizations, also change at giant paces.

In the face of this reality, new approaches are required, related to the ways and manners of perceiving the teaching process but, above all, related to the managerial process, so that the fulfillment of different functions can be guaranteed and thus, the goals of the institution can be achieved. The passive role directivad long-term response is no longer pertinent in the light of new realities and pressures of environment. Therefore, global environment demands constant revision of administrative processes to conduct the organization in the correct direction and to achieve success.


For this, Alles indicates that competent managers are required, with knowledge, skills and habiliaddes, attitudes, personality traits and values that allow them to achieve a good professional performance. Accoding to Matos and Caridadp. Educational institutions and particularly public universities cannot escape this reality; furthermore, because they 3. In addition, it should be understood that the sole application of directive skills does not lead by itself, to the success of the Public University considered as an enterprise of knowledge, because it is also required to have management of knowledge based on a structured process that implicates identification, creation, selection, organization, storage, filtering, direcivas and, of course, applying the knowledge.

Octubre – Marzo Likewise, this process should address the analysis, denomination and transference of expertise between the members of the organization, for the purpose of creating a value that can be reflected in the elements as intangible assets, organizational learning and, above all, the human, intellectual and relational capital, because management of knowledge is a work philosophy where, clearly the directorate has a crucial role.

This administration may be associated with organized, planned and continuous management of both processes and activities that potentiate knowledge and thus augments the competiveness of the organization, through creation and better use of the set of experiences, wisdom, values, information, perceptions and ideas that create the certain mental structure needed to so evaluate and incorporate new information, both in the individual and the collective.

Hence, the present study analyzes from a theoretical perspective, the directive abilities and knowledge management in Public Universities considered as knowledge corporations. Diverse practices, abilities and attributes of the effective manager Author Theoretical-Practical Contribution to Directive Skills Malone He identified seven fundamental practices associated with administrative and organizational effectiveness: Octubre – Marzo techniques of administration and organizational performance.


Whetten and They effected a study in directives, identifying 60 basic Cameron Personal Abilities development of self-conscience; management of personal stress; analytical and creative problem solvingInterpersonal Abilities direction, orientation and communication of support; achievement of power and influence; motivation of others; management of conflict and Group Abilities empowerment and delegation; team formation and effective teamwork; routing towards positive change.

Likewise, they added a group of Specific Abilities of Communication with direct links to each of the above groups. Brodbeck and They studied directives in 22 countries concentrating on the others Based on the theory of Whetten y Cameronthis study re-grouped directive abilities into nine: This study based the development of directive abilities on the phases of the management process planning, organizing, directing and controllinking them negotiation abilities, leadership, communication and work motivation.

This study reformulated Whetten and Cameron in a more didactic way also dwelling on interpersonal directive abilities. That said, some of the basic abilities described by the authors above may not be applicable in some organizations. In the educative environment, for example, it would be ethically unacceptable that the directors develop the interpersonal ability of obtaining power and influence.

Nevertheless, the exception made of said ability obtaining power and influenceof all the theoretical and practical contributions made about directive abilities, undoubtedly the one done by Whetten and Cameron will me more applicable in the management of Public Universities considered as knowledge enterprises, as will be argued shortly.

Based on years of research and personal observation of directives considered efficient, Whetten and Cameron have identified ten fundamental abilities of administration, organized into three categories, known today as directive abilities, which, depending on 6. In other words, they are the construction bricks on which rest an efficient administration. Octubre – Marzo These abilities are the following: According to Whetten and Cameronp. This outcome is the primary objective.

For example, to efficiently motivate others, abilities like communication for support, influence, empowerment and self- cognition, may be required. Whetten and Cameron In this sense, Casadop. That said, in the context of Public Universities, both in the internalization desarollo the development of said abilities will allow those who have specific functions of directorship there, to apply in their sphere of action, each and every one of those personal, interpersonal and group attributes that be required to achieve a novel, enriched and, therefore, efficient management, taking into consideration that the dramatic changes and dynamism of the labor, academic and professional world today, merit an integral compendium of abilities, competences and skills to deal direcctivas them in both an efficient and effective manner.

In the light of this idea, Harf and Azzerboni state that directive abilities promote behaviors in others since they target coherence and dynamism, guaranteeing the implementation of democratic and participative processes so to produce and establish organizational camegon and fulfill the vision and the habiliaddes of the situation that presents, as a leader, boss or assessor.


But, unfortunately, even though caameron theory it looks easy, for Whetten and Cameron the development of highly competent directive abilities is more complicated than developing other types of abilities, like in a craft or profession. This is because, according to said authors, the first are linked to a more complex basic knowledge than other types wetten abilities.

Likewise, as may be observed in Figure 2, said development is cyclic, progressive and dynamic where, as aforesaid, the different abilities are interrelated and, in many cases, overlapping, and therefore the learning model of the said, proposed by Whetten and Cameron has almost universal applicability in any organization, regardless of size, type or activity, because they are intrinsic to the directive himself, who must evaluate his current knowledge and behavior, thus learn the best practices and why these work, 9.

Development of directive competences: Besides, these attributes, behavior and strategies may be improved once the group of directives receives managerial training so they enhance the style of management that they employ in their performance. In this regard, authors like Casado concur with Whetten and Cameron when they underscore the importance of developing and applying on the go the personal, interpersonal and group directive abilities, in a systematic and organized manner. It is worthwhile to go deeper into each one of them.

Personal directive abilities Octubre – Marzo As can be seen in above figure, Whetten and Cameron state that in the group of personal directive abilities, three specific abilities can be identified: The second directive ability observed in Figure 3 is the management of personal stress, which is related to the administration of time and the improvement of the relation stress- time.

Habilidades directivas by Itzel Ruiz on Prezi

This is, according to the authors mentioned above, one of the most crucial but, at the same time, less attended abilities that a competent directive must possess; this is because the feelings of stress are the product of certain factors that can be found within and outside the individual. Thus, the management of stress is conditioned by stressors, the reaction to them which occurs in two stages: These are denominated proactive strategies and are designed to initiate an action that resists the negative effects of stress.

Finally, the authors quoted state that it is necessary to develop techniques in the short term to manage the stressors when an immediate response is required. These are reactive strategies, applied as remedies in the moment to reduce the temporary effective of stress. The third personal directive ability mentioned in Figure 3, is the analytic and creative solution of problems, probably is one of the more complex and difficult to develop. In this regard, the above quoted authors indicate that the analytic solving of problems is the applying of a systematic and logic method, which involves at least four stages: Octubre – Marzo making, as has been proposed by Valls The first consists of knowing how to direct, orient and communicate, in an efficient and effective manner, when support is required applying the fundamental bases of administration and management; therefore, their feasibility goes beyond the fulfilling of the assignments intrinsic to the directive job, since they must be moved towards the other members of the organization through competent abilities of communication.

The second, obtainment of power and influence, with regard to, according to the authors quoted, establishing a base of power in order to get the job don and obtain commitments to important objectives. Octubre – Marzo under the influence of power, because persuasion tends to forge trust and encourage internal commitment, on the other hand, coercion and intimidation erode trust, produce only superficial acceptance and foment subservience, as affirmed by Whetten and Cameron The third ability, motivation of others, evidently is based on the second component of work performance: For the authors above quoted, even though it is important for directives to attend to training and support of the needs of the subordinates and to involve himself in an active way in the process of contracting and adjustment of the job position in order to insure an adequate attitude, the influence of his actions in the daily motivation of his subordinates is vital.

Efficient directives allot sufficient time to animate and strengthen motivation of his subordinates, which reflects on his effort and interest.

The fourth ability described in Figure 4 is another component of work relations: The management of conflict. In regard to this, Whetten and Cameron indicate that interpersonal conflict is an essential part and is omnipresent in organizational life and, therefore, the directive ability for managing it is that which is composed of three fundamental skills: Finally, as is indicated in Figure 5, the third assembly of fundamental directive abilities proposed by Whetten and Cameron corresponds with the group abilities: Octubre – Marzo Source: More than being a Push strategy, in which directives induce employees to respond in desirable ways through incentives and influence techniques, empowerment is a strategy of attraction.

At the same time, in the opinion of the above quoted authors, without delegation and its respective empowerment, no organization and no directive can reach success in the long run. Delegation includes other people in the job activity and is an action inherent to all directive positions. Regarding the second group ability, team formation and efficient teamwork, it is based on the strategic vision of the directive, with which he, knowing fully his subordinates abilities, can form dynamic teams that can reach efficiently and effectively, the objectives, assignments or goals that have been allocated to them, in pro of common benefit of the organization and its consequent success.

Desqrrollo, but not lest relevant, is the ability of conducing toward positive change. This is, without doubt, one of the abilities habiliddes every directive from any sphere or organization must attend imperatively, considering each and every one, direcitvas, as well as interpersonal and group abilities analyzed above, as each one of them contributes to generate this vision of positive change in the directive, this future visualization of the ideal organization, adaptable and in synchrony with changes of the environment in which it is immersed.


According to Whetten and Cameron the directive must be capable of generating a positive change both whetteen a universal camedon an expanding manner, considering the need of structures and tendencies to stabilize the organization. The development of the directive abilities before described personal, interpersonal, and group is not the only thing required to carry out the transformation that Public Universities need, their applicability is also necessary in pro of dhetten optimization habi,idades the processes involved in the so called management of knowledge in order to achieve dexarrollo goals, because it is, according to Larrea p.

According to Bueno knowledge management organizes human talent for planning, coordinating and controlling the flow of knowledge that is produced in educational organizations, relating with its activities and environment, in order to create competences en idrectivas, teachers, students, parents and the general community.

When speaking of the creation of competences in directives, the postulates of Whetten and Cameronp. At the same time, practice without the conceptual knowledge needed, is sterile and ignores the necessity of flexibility ddsarrollo adaptation to different situations. Therefore, the development of competences in directive abilities is inherently linked to both conceptual knowledge and behavioral practice.

Notwithstanding the above, authors like Manes emphasize the need for professionalization for directives in educational institutes, insisting on conduction and leadership as destined institutional functions, where the people responsible for these assignments, in this case, the directives, must know new techniques that allow them to conduct, direct or manage better educational projects, effective from the pedagogical, efficient from the administrative, effective from the communal and transcendent from the cultural approach.

Even though there is general consensus about this last affirmation in the specialized literature, this traditional approach, insufficient in educative organizational reality, and of course, contrary to the assumptions of the management of knowledge that involves transference of experiences and personal occurrences, it opposes not only the assumptions of Whetten and Cameron related to the whetyen balance, but also those of Del Regnop.

A good theory is one that reflects reality truly. Practice, on the other hand, seeks to introduce change, modify reality. Octubre – Marzo personnel in charge of such activities in the institution, as can be observed in the following Figure: This is because, of course, traditionally this management is associated to the organized, planned and continuous direction of processes and activities that potentiate knowledge so to augment the competitiveness of the organization, through the creation and better use of the conjunction of experiences, cultural knowledge, values, information, perceptions and ideas that create a certain mental structure to evaluate and incorporate new information, both in the individual and the collective.

These are functions specific of directives, but when individuality and collectivity are spoken about, other elements are considered, such as, intangible actives, organizational habilidadfs and, above all, human, intellectual and relational capital. Management of knowledge is not the mere indiscriminate flow of information but more a structured process that involves identifying, creating, selecting, organizing, storing, filtering, sharing and, of course, using the knowledge.

Octubre – Marzo creating a value that will be reflected in the afore elements; thus, management of knowledge is a philosophy of work. Finally, the management of knowledge in educational organizations, especially in Public Universities, should be founded both on a dialogic action and a shared vision, that is, from transference towards transformation.

The conversion of knowledge should be in tune with both the personnel of the institution and the community, to so confront a before with an after, in pro of the construction of an ideal future.

These abilities are classified into three major groups: A fundamental element of these directive abilities directkvas differentiate them from other managerial tools is their practical application. Although they need more research and theorization about thet are, what they represent, how to implement them and what they produce, really their major component is practical: The only way in which these abilities may On the other hand, if the Public University is seen as a real business of knowledge, its efficient and effective management is imperative to achieve organizational success.

Therefore, wheyten its directives develop a conjunction of abilities that benefit whftten performance of functions, it will be possible to digectivas them in their whetgen types personal, interpersonal and group for the management of knowledge. Theoretically this is realizable if wehtten management of knowledge is considered not only as the mere transference or dissemination of information but as the real and complex process that it is, with, besides, a conjunction of specific abilities of communication linked to the above described, which at the same time may be applied to the identification, creation, selection, organization, storage, filtering, sharing and use of knowledge as a conjunction of experiences, cultural wisdom, values, information, perceptions and ideas that create habilidade certain mental structure in the individual so to evaluate and incorporate new information, both in the individual and the collective plane.

Octubre – Marzo Finally, directivqs management of knowledge is a process that all organizations that wish to stay in the rhythm of change in the environment should dominate optimally, so their dynamism and camron conformation may permit the forming of planned creative strategies, coordinated to generate, maintain and integrate their intellectual capital, favoring using knowledge for the benefit of the common good, creating culture favorable to change and innovation; for this to be feasible, to be able to achieve successful, efficient and effective management, for the organization and the collective entity, the directive as an individual must internalize the fact that a conjunction of specific directive abilities is required, developed and improved through practice, by experience and evaluation of the positive aspects encountered therein.

Cultural variation of leadership prototypes across 22 European countries.

Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Entrenamiento emocional en el trabajo.