Cryphiops (Cryphiops) caementarius (Molina, ). AphiaID. (urn:lsid: :taxname). Classification. Go to Print Version. Cryphiops caementarius (Molina, ) Taxonomic Serial No .: (Download Help) Cryphiops caementarius TSN SpeciesCryphiops caementariuschangallo shrimp. ADW Pocket Guides on the iOS App Store! The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW.

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Chemical composition of the freshwater prawn Cryphiops caementarius Molina, Decapoda: Palaemonidae in two populations in northern Chile: Palaemonidae en dos poblaciones del norte de Chile: Moreno-Reyes 1Carlos A.

Toledo 23. Reductions of its natural populations have led to recent efforts in small-scale aquaculture of the freshwater prawn Cryphiops caementarius, either for conservation or commercial purposes. However, the lack of knowledge about its nutritional requirements has been one of the major obstacles for its successful culture. Given its importance, this study determines and compares the chemical composition moisture, ash, crude protein, total lipids and nitrogen free extract of whole animals and main storage tissues gonad, hepatopancreas and muscleof C.

Moreover, the relation of this composition with reproductive and environmental parameters sex, maturation and habitat is discussed.

The chemical composition of whole animals and storage tissues was compared among categories. Significant differences were observed between tissues, sexes, maturity stages and locations.

Cryphiops caementarius – Wikipedia

Regarding tissues, the muscle and the gonads were rich in protein, whereas the hepatopancreas had high lipid content. According to results, factors such as sex, habitat and stage of gonad maturation can modify the biochemistry of C.

Nonetheless, the main chemical variations were observed in tissues involved in regulatory processes hepatopancreas and gonadsand to a lesser extent in structural tissues muscle. This is the first study known that reports information about the biochemistry of C. Cryphiops caementarius, chemical composition, nutritional requirements, protein, lipids, storage tissues.

Se determinaron diferencias significativas entre tejidos, sexos, estados de madurez y lugares de captura.

Cryphiops caementarius…Camarón de rio del Norte

Cryphiops caementarius Molina, commonly known in Chile as the northern river prawn, is one of the most important freshwater resources and the only species of the Palaemonidae family present in Chilean inland waters Jara et al.

However, indiscriminate extraction due to its economic importance and the human alterations of its habitat, have reduced its natural populations, putting this species in danger of extinction for some locations within its natural distribution range Jara et al.

Nevertheless, the difficulty to satisfy its environmental requirements in captivity due to its complex life cycle, along with high mortality rates during ecdysis, high cannibalism behavior during mating season and other issues commonly related with nutritional deficiencies e. However, regarding the biochemistry of crustaceans, it has been stated that environmental factors such as habitat, food availability, and seasonality can modify their metabolism Schirf et al.

Because there are no formal studies focused on the biochemistry of C. As the knowledge of nutritional requirements in decapods has been considered crucial to their successful culture in captivity, the aim of this investigation was to determine basic nutritional requirements of the species, in order to improve small-scale aquaculture practices as an alternative way to recovering natural populations.

Study of this species is important because of its social and economic importance Meruane et al. All live animals utilized in this research were treated with proper care, minimizing discomfort and distress. Also, the number of sampled animals was kept to the minimum necessary to obtain scientific results, balancing the gain in knowledge with the long-term conservation and well-being of the species. All animals were intermolt hard-shelled and stages of gonadic maturation were visually identified based on size, color and gross morphology according to the scale proposed by Viacava et al.

In the laboratory, the prawns were cryphoips into six categories according to their capture location, maturation stage and gender Table 2.

Immediately caementariuus, some prawns were conserved intact for the chemical analysis in whole animals and the others were dissected to remove the gonads, the hepatopancreas, and the abdominal muscle. Tissues caementairus individually weighed and pooled from six to eight individuals when there was insufficient amount to perform all analyses e. Moisture, ash, crude protein and total lipid contents of gonad, hepatopancreas, abdominal muscle, and whole animals were determined by triplicate according to the AOAC Crude protein was determined using the Kjeldahl method, with a conversion factor of 6.


Total lipids were determined using the Soxhlet method. Nitrogen free extract NFE was calculated with the formula: Whenever necessary, data were transformed to satisfy normal distribution and homoscedasticity requirements. All statistical analyses were tested at the 0. The chemical composition of whole animals and main storage tissues of C.

Significant differences were detected between tissues, sexes and locations Table 1. Regarding whole animals, females had higher values of crude protein and total lipids than males, but low ash content independently of the stage of maturation and capture location. Concerning tissues, the highest caementarlus of moisture were found in abdominal muscle of the six prawn categories Choapa immature female, CMF: Choapa mature female, CMM: Choapa mature male, NFE: Categories of prawns according to their capture location, maturation stage and gender.

In male and female prawns from both rivers, and independently of the stage of maturation, the muscle and the gonads were rich in protein, whereas the hepatopancreas had cryphioops lipid content.

The highest values of protein in tissue were found in abdominal muscle for the six categories ranging from Concerning sexes, muscle of C. Independently of location, sex, or stage of maturation, proteins were the most abundant component in gonads In contrast, in the case of the hepatopancreas, lipids were the most abundant component Contrary to the caemebtarius sex and location differences observed in the chemical composition of abdominal muscle, the variations in the chemical composition of the gonads and the hepatopancreas showed a remarkable relation with sex, stage of maturation and capture location Table 1.

The same results were observed in prawns from Choapa River, except for the hepatopancreas of mature females, where the lipid levels were higher cae,entarius those of immature females. With regard to the NFE content, independently of capture location, this was high in the gonads but low in the hepatopancreas and muscle of immature females, whereas in mature females, NFE levels were low in gonadal and muscle tissues and high in hepatopancreatic tissue.

The results presented in this work constitute the crgphiops report of the chemical composition in whole animals males and females and rcyphiops storage tissues gonads, hepatopancreas and muscle of adult C. According to Dempson et caemenatrius. The greater the protein and lipid content represents higher the energy density. Despite the significant differences detected between tissues, sexes and locations, the high protein levels found during this study in both whole animals from With regard whole animals, moisture levels in male and female C.

In the case of crude protein and total lipids, the mean levels in C. In cry;hiops case of NFE, the levels from 0. In relation to the differences in the chemical composition between whole males and females, in general terms males had higher ash levels than females but lower protein and crryphiops levels Table 1.

These differences in the proportions of nutrients between sexes could be associated with reproductive aspects. According to Rojas et al. As a result of this strategy, the mineral content in males increases with regard to females. Therefore, the ash levels rise while the levels of the others nutrients decrease. The presence of a large number of robust spines in male chelipeds reported by Rojas et al. Regarding storage tissues, abdominal muscle had the highest levels of protein and caemsntarius lowest levels of NFE.

Cryphiops caementarius

Although proteins can be also accumulated in the hepatopancreas and the gonads, the high levels found in abdominal muscle confirm this tissue as the main protein-storage location in C. The same result has been reported by Huner caementxrius al.

Some studies in crustaceans had reported that protein levels in whole animals Santos et al. The influence exerted by food e. PenaeideaParapenaeus longirostris Crustacea: Penaeidea and Nephrops norvegicus Crustacea: These studies reported variations in protein, lipid and carbohydrate contents in relation to available diet. In the case of total lipids in muscle, females had generally caementxrius contents than males, especially in animals from Choapa River. The higher levels of total lipids found in abdominal muscle of females in comparison to males, has also been reported in Cancer pagurus Barrento et al.


Compared with other species, C. Concerning moisture and ash contents, C. Regarding both the gonads and the hepatopancreas, the high moisture content and low nutrient levels crude protein or total lipids or NFE found in immature females in comparison to mature females suggest that during ovarian cycle, these organs, and mostly the ovary, replace the water inside with nutrients for the vitellus.

The same mechanism has been reported in Cherax quadricarinatus, where lipid and protein levels in the ovary increase during vitellogenesis while moisture levels decrease Li et al. In addition, for all analyzed tissues, especially the gonads, high moisture levels were accompanied by high ash levels Table 1.

The levels of ash found in gonads ctyphiops. The high ash levels in storage tissues may be explained by the recognized capacity of crustaceans to accumulate minerals and heavy metals in shell and soft tissues Meador et al.

In the case of C. This condition suggests a high demand for proteins during gametogenesis by C. About total lipids, although these can also accumulate in the gonad and muscle the high levels found in the hepatopancreas of males and females in comparison to the other analyzed tissues, confirm this organ as the main lipid storage place cawmentarius C. Therefore, the higher levels of total lipids found in the gonads of mature females in comparison to immature females reflect the importance of lipids as an energy source in the eggs of C.

This suggestion is in agreement with Harrisonwho reported higher lipid requirements for crustacean maturation than for growth and survival, and reinforced by recent studies performed on C.

Cryphiops caementariusCamarón de rio del Norte | Iván Hinojosa | Flickr

In relation to NFE, the low values found in the gonads of mature animals male and female suggest that these compounds have a secondary role in cryphipps formation of C.

In contrast, the high levels observed in the hepatopancreas may suggest that NFE is a complementary source of energy that supports, together with lipids, the intense reproductive behavior documented for this species.

In addition, these authors caemenatrius reported in females a molting event performed prior to spawn, which implies a high energy demand.

In contrast, studies performed in marine and freshwater species such as Penaeus vannamei Palacios et al. In addition, Avarre et al. Although the nutrient cruphiops among C. This situation may suggest a nutrient mobilization from the hepatopancreas to the ovary during gonadal maturation. On the other hand, the fact that the lipid levels found in the hepatopancreas of mature females from Choapa River were higher than the levels found in immature females, suggest mobilization of lipids to the ovary from exogenous sources instead of hepatopancreas.

This hypothesis must be investigated for caemntarius and females in future experiments to properly understand how this species obtains and distributes the energy necessary to support reproductive activity.

In summary, this study provides useful information regarding the nutritional requirements of wild C. In conclusion, the results herein suggest that reproductive behavior and environmental conditions can modify the biochemistry of C.

Nevertheless, the main changes occurs in tissues involved in regulatory processes the hepatopancreas and the gonadsand to a lesser extent in structural tissues muscle.