Morfología Ciclo vital. Hospedadores Género: Fasciola Filo:Platyhelminthes. Hospedador definitivo. Afecta principalmente a bovinos, ovinos. Fasciola Hepatica Víctor Cortés Sánchez Departamento de Agentes . También fue el primer ciclo explicado: Leuckart ; Thomas Capillaria hepatica is a parasitic nematode which causes hepatic capillariasis in rodents and . Moravec, F (). “Proposal of a . Fasciola hepatica/gigantica.
|Published (Last):||14 August 2006|
|PDF File Size:||17.65 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||17.32 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
La Fasciolasis es una enfermedad parasitaria causada por un trematodo biologifo como Fasciola hepatica. Louse populations are highest in cattle kept indoors during the winter months and heavy infestations cause irritation, leading to rubbing against feed barriers. This results in hair loss over the neck and shoulders and reduced DWG.
Five species of lice infest cattle. They are classified as either biting lice Damalina bovis or sucking lice Linognathus vituli or Haematopinus eurysternusSolenopotes capillatus. It not uncommon for cattle to be infected with more than one type of lice. This is particularly common in younger stock.
The louse life cycle take 4 to 5 weeks and is similar for both sucking and biting lice. The eggs hatch and develop through 3 nymph stages to adults. This is illustrated below.
The thick, winter coat of the animal provide the ideal environment for development, providing a warm, humid and protected environment. As lice are usually transmitted by host contact, winter housing provides the ideal conditions for the transfer of lice between cattle. Adult cattle grubs are circa 15 mm long, hairy, and bee-like in appearance.
In late spring or early summer, they attach their eggs on cattle, particularly on the legs and lower body regions. The eggs hatch and penetrate the skin. The first-stage larvae travel fascjola muscles, along connective tissue, or along nerve pathways.
They secrete proteolytic enzymes that facilitate their movement. During fall and winter, larvae migrate toward 2 different regions, depending on the species. H lineatum larvae migrate to the submucosal connective tissue of the oesophageal wall, where they accumulate for 2—4 months. Biologici bovis larvae migrate to the region of the spinal canal, where they are found in the epidural fat between the dura mater and the periosteum for a similar period.
Beginning in early winter, the larvae arrive in the sub-dermal tissue of the back of the host where they make breathing holes through the skin. Cysts or warbles form around the larvae, which undergo 2 molts second and third stage. The warble stage lasts 4—8 wk. Finally, third-stage larvae emerge through the breathing holes, drop to the ground, and pupate.
Flies emerge from the pupae in 1—3 months, depending on weather conditions. The life cycle fasxiola complete in 1 year.
During periods of sunshine on warm days, cattle may run with their tails high in the air when chased by female flies, particularly H bovis. Penetration of the skin by newly hatched larvae may produce a rash in older, previously infested cattle.
The points of penetration are painful and inflamed hepahica usually exude a yellow serum. Cattle grubs may occur in the back from tail-head to the shoulders, and from top-line to about one-third fascuola distance down hepaticw sides.
Usually, the cysts are firm and raised considerably above the normal contour of the skin and, occasionally, develop in abscesses. The emergence of the grub, its forced expulsion, or its death within the cyst usually results in healing of the lesion without complications.
Carcasses and hides of cattle infested with cattle grubs show marked evidence of the infestation and are reduced in value. Ostertagia ostertagi bimectin injection, bimectin pour on and bimectin plus.
Ostertagiosis Ostertagiasisclclo parasitic gastritis caused by the nematode Ostertagia ostertagi, is the most important of the gastrointestinal helminthic infections of cattle in temperate climates. Disease caused by this brown stomach worm only occurs in first and sometimes second season grazing stock as immunity is developed over this period. Eggs passed in the faeces develop into first-stage larvae L,which hatch develop, and moult to become second-stage larvae L2which in turn develop and moult to the third infective stage L3.
All of this occurs in the faeces pat, and the L3 then migrates under moist conditions onto the herbage.
The L3 retains the outer sheath of the L3 and is the most resistant of the free-living stages. Following ingestion, the parasitic cycle involves development through the L3 and L4 stages in the gastric glands. This usually takes 21 days, by which time the adult parasite emerges from the glands onto the surface of the abomasal mucosa.
The adults mate and the female worm will then produce thousands’ of fertilised eggs which pass out of the animal in the faeces.
The lifecycle of the larval stages depends on appropriate warm and moist conditions, which are cidlo in the British Isles from May onwards. Under the appropriate conditions of temperature and humidity; the eggs will develop into larvae. There are two presentations of Ostertagiosis Ostertagiasis and of Parasitic gastro-enteritis in cattle generally:.
Ciclo biológico de Fasciola hepática. by Camila Carrara on Prezi
Adult worms living in stomach attached to the lining, causing damage to the gut lining and deprive host of nutrients. Usually occurs in grazing season. Larval stage 4 burrows into stomach lining and emerge in large fascio,a causing explosive diarrhoea and may even be fatal.
Lungworm is also known as Hoose or Husk. Lungworm infestation is more prevalent in Europe than in North America. Clinical signs of infection include coughing and difficulty in breathing. Affected cattle have an increased susceptibility to infective pneumonia. Immunity to lungworm develops quickly but is relatively short-lasting approx. At the start of each grazing season, following housing, cattle may have very little or no immunity to lungworm and thus are susceptible to new infections again.
The periods of greatest challenge in temperate climates for animals are late summer and autumn. Reinfection Syndrome occurs in cows that are partly immune to Lungworm that are exposed to heavy larval challenge from pasture recently grazed by young susceptible animals.
Such animals will not have Lungworm larvae detectable in faeces. The fasciolla cycle of a lungworm begins with an ingestion of infective larvae. The larvae then penetrate the intestinal wall, and from here migrate into the lungs through the bloodstream. The infected larvae reside in the lungs until the development into an adult lungworm. The eggs of the adult hatch; producing L1 larvae.
The eggs or L1 larvae that reside in the lungs are coughed up and then ingested back into the stomach and released into the environment via the faeces. This orange fungus, regularly seen on cow dung pats in pastures, explodes, spreading the lungworm larvae all over the pasture.
Bimectin Injection is licensed to treat lungworm in cattle, sheep and pigs. Bimectin Paste is licensed to treat lungworm in horses. Four species of lice infest cattle. There are various types of intestinal worms, which impact negatively on the health and productivity of animals. To find out more about some of the bioolgico common intestinal worms in the UK and Ireland, read on. Bimectin InjectionBimectin Pour On and Bimectin Plus are all licensed as treatments for these intestinal parasites.
Several species of Cooperia are found in the small intestine of cattle; C punctataC oncophoraand C pectinata are the most common and their life cycle is essentially the same as that of other trichostrongylids.
Most of them are found in the first 10—20 ft. In heavy infections there is profuse diarrhoea, anorexia, and emaciation, but no anaemia; the upper small intestine shows marked congestion of the mucosa with small haemorrhages a milder form can occur but can be responsible for weight loss and poor productivity.
Infection is by ingestion or skin penetration; the latter is more common. Larval penetrating the lower limbs may cause uneasiness and stamping, particularly in housed cattle. Adult worms biologioc anaemia and rapid weight loss. Diarrhoea and constipation may alternate. Hypoproteinemic oedema may be present, but bottle jaw is rare. The worms are readily seen in the first few feet of the small intestine, and the contents are often blood-stained.
As few as 2, hepaticx may cause death in calves. Local lesions, oedema, and scab formation may result from penetration of larvae into the skin of resistant calves. The intestinal threadworms, Strongyloides papillosusare embedded in the mucosa of the hepaticca small intestine.
Infections are most common in young calves, particularly dairy stock. Although signs are rare, they may include intermittent diarrhoea, loss of appetite and weight, and sometimes blood and mucus in the faeces. Large numbers of worms in the intestine produce catarrhal enteritis with petechial and ecchymosis, especially in the duodenum bologico jejunum.
Nematodirus helvetianus is generally recognized as the most common species in cattle, although other species, e. The eggs develop slowly; the infective third stage is reached within the egg in 2—4 week and may remain within the egg for several months.
Eggs may accumulate on pastures and hatch in large numbers after rain to produce heavy infections over a short period. The eggs are highly resistant, and those passed by calves in one season may remain viable and infect calves the next season. Worms are most numerous 10—20 ft. These have a direct life cycle. The larvae penetrate primarily into the wall of the lower 10—20 ft.
However, in subsequent reinfections, larvae become arrested for some time, and many never return to the lumen host encystment. Young animals suffer from the effects of adult worms, whereas in biilogico animals, the effect of the nodules is more important. Infection causes anorexia; severe, constant, dark, persistent, fetid diarrhoea; weight loss; and death. In older, resistant animals, the nodules surrounding the larvae become caseated and calcified, thus decreasing the motility of the intestine.
Stenosis or intussusception occasionally occurs. Nodules can be palpated per rectum, and the worms and nodules can be seen readily at necropsy. Trichuris infections are common in young stock, but the numbers of worms are seldom large. Clinical signs are unlikely, but in occasional heavy infections, dark faeces, anaemia, and anorexia may be seen.