CHITON TUBERCULATUS PDF

species of mollusc. Chiton Wikipedia Wikispecies. Instance of, taxon. Image of Chiton tuberculatus (West Indian green chiton). Chiton tuberculatus. No image available for this species; drawing shows typical species in this Family. Brief summary. No one has contributed a brief summary to this page yet. Explore what EOL knows about Chiton tuberculatus. Add a brief summary to this page.

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Chiton tuberculatusthe West Indian Green Chitonis a species of chitona marine polyplacophoran mollusk in the family Chitonidaethe typical chitons. Chiton tuberculatus can reach a length of about 50—60 millimetres 2. The basic color is gray green.

The valves are ribbed, dull grayish green or greenish brown, with a spicule-covered mantle girdle alternating zones of whitish, green or black. Taxonomy biology — Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition tubercularus taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming.

There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may tubercuulatus said, never be completely realized.

They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology. He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, thus, Ernst Mayr in defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species. This activity is what the term denotes, it is also referred to as beta taxonomy.

How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species. cgiton

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While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.

The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone.

Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate. Animal — Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates.

Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about million years ago.

Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone. These include molluscs, arthropods, annelids, nematodes, flatworms, cnidarians, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology. The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish, insects, and humans.

Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification.

AnimalBase :: Chiton tuberculatus speciestaxon homepage

In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one chitno three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Insecta, Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, tubercularus Mammalia. Since then the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, inErnst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms, Metazoa and Protozoa.

The protozoa were later moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia. Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things.

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Chiton tuberculatus – Wikipedia

Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls.

All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals.

With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals. Mollusca — The molluscs compose the large phylum Mollusca of invertebrate animals. Numerous molluscs also live in freshwater and terrestrial habitats and they are highly diverse, not just in size and in anatomical structure, but also in behaviour and in habitat.

The phylum is divided into 9 or 10 taxonomic classes. The gastropods are by far the most numerous molluscs in terms of classified species, the three most universal features defining modern molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion, the presence of a radula, and the structure of the nervous system. Other than these things, molluscs express great morphological diversity, so many textbooks base their descriptions on an ancestral mollusc.

This has a single, limpet-like shell on top, which is made of proteins and chitin reinforced with calcium carbonate, the underside of the animal consists of a single muscular foot. Although molluscs are coelomates, the coelom tends to be small, the main body cavity is a hemocoel through which blood circulates, their circulatory systems are mainly open. The generalized mollusc has two paired nerve cords, or three in bivalves, the brain, in species that have one, encircles the esophagus.

Most molluscs have eyes, and all have sensors to detect chemicals, vibrations, the simplest type of molluscan reproductive system relies on external fertilization, but more complex variations occur. All produce eggs, from which may emerge trochophore larvae, more complex veliger larvae, good evidence exists for the appearance of gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves in the Cambrian period to Molluscs have, for centuries, also been the source of important luxury goods, notably pearls, mother of pearl, Tyrian purple dye and their shells have also been used as money in some preindustrial societies.

Mollusc species can also represent hazards or pests for human activities, the bite of the blue-ringed octopus is often fatal, and that of Octopus apollyon causes inflammation that can last for over a month. Stings from a few species of large tropical cone shells can also kill, schistosomiasis is transmitted to humans via water snail hosts, and affects about million people.

Snails and slugs can also be serious pests, and accidental or deliberate introduction of some snail species into new environments has seriously damaged some ecosystems.

The scientific study of molluscs is accordingly called malacology, as it is now known these groups have no relation to molluscs, and very little to one another, the name Molluscoida has been abandoned. The most universal features of the structure of molluscs are a mantle with a significant cavity used for breathing and excretion.

He is known by the father of modern taxonomy. He received most of his yuberculatus at Uppsala University. He lived abroad between andwhere he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands and he then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the s, he was sent on journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants.

In the s and s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, at the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. The German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote, With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, Swedish author August Strindberg wrote, Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist.

Among other compliments, Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum, The Pliny of the North and he is also considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany, the abbreviation used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for species names is L. In older publications, sometimes the abbreviation Linn.

One of a line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Ocean — An ocean is a body of saline water chifon composes much of a planets hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one of the major divisions of the World Ocean. These are, in descending order by area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern, the word sea is often used interchangeably with ocean in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water partly or fully enclosed by land.

As the world ocean is the component of Earths hydrosphere, it is integral to all known life, forms part of the carbon cycle. The world ocean is the habitat tubercuoatusknown species, but because much of it is unexplored, the origin of Earths oceans remains unknown, oceans are thought to have formed in the Hadean period and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life.

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Extraterrestrial oceans may be composed of water or other elements and compounds, the only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System. Early in their histories, Mars and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, tubfrculatus such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice.

Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many planets and natural satellites, notably. The Solar Systems giant planets are thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may also exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans cihton water within a circumstellar habitable zone.

Ocean planets tiberculatus a type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid.

Related to this notion, the Okeanos is represented with a dragon-tail tuberculatud some early Greek vases, though generally described as several separate oceans, these waters choton one global, interconnected body of salt water sometimes referred to guberculatus the World Ocean or global ocean. This concept of a body of water with relatively free interchange among its parts is chton fundamental importance to oceanography.

The major oceanic divisions — listed below in descending order of area and volume — are defined in part by the continents, various archipelagos, Oceans are fringed by smaller, tyberculatus bodies of water such as chigon, gulfs, bays, bights, and straits. The Mid-Oceanic Ridge of the World are connected and form the Ocean Ridge, the continuous mountain range is 65, km long, and the total length of the oceanic ridge system is 80, km long.

About extant and fossil species are recognized and they are also sometimes known as sea cradles or coat-of-mail shells, or more formally as loricates, polyplacophorans, and occasionally as chitoon. Chitons have a shell composed of eight separate plates or valves. These plates overlap slightly at the front and back edges, the tubervulatus plates are encircled by a skirt known as a girdle.

Chitons live worldwide, from cold waters through to the tropics and they live on hard surfaces, such as on or under rocks, or in rock crevices. Some species live high in the intertidal zone and are exposed to the air. Most species inhabit intertidal or subtidal zones, and do not extend beyond the photic zone, chitons are exclusively and fully marine. All chitons bear a protective shell that is divided into eight articulating aragonite valves embedded in the tough muscular girdle that surrounds the chitons body.

Compared with the single or two-piece shells of molluscs, this arrangement allows chitons to roll into a tunerculatus ball when dislodged. In some species the valves are reduced or covered by the girdle tissue, the valves are variously colored, patterned, smooth, or sculptured.

The most anterior plate is crescent-shaped, and is known as the cephalic plate, the most posterior plate is known as the anal plate The inner layer of each of the six intermediate plates is produced anteriorly as an articulating flange, called the articulamentum.

This inner layer may also be produced laterally in the form of notched insertion plates and these function as an attachment of the valve plates to the soft body. A similar series of insertion plates may be attached to the anterior border of the cephalic plate or the convex posterior border of the anal plate.

The sculpture of the valves is one of the taxonomic characteristics, after a chiton dies, the individual valves which make up the eight-part shell come apart because the girdle is no longer holding them together, and then the plates sometimes wash up in beach drift.

The individual shell plates from a chiton are known as butterfly shells due to their shape. The protein component of the scales and sclerites is minuscule in comparison with other biomineralized structures and this implies that polysaccharides make up the bulk of the matrix. The girdle spines often bear length-parallel striations, tubercupatus wide form of girdle ornament suggests it serves a secondary role, chitons can survive perfectly well without them.

Camouflage or defence are two likely functions, spicules are secreted by cells that do not express engrailed, chitkn these cells are surrounded by engrailed-expressing cells.