La Educación (Que Es) Del Otro by Carlos Skliar at – ISBN – ISBN – Novedades Educativas – Report. El cuidado del otro de Carlos Skliar. PC. Paola Clavijo. Updated 18 April Transcript. EL CUIDADO. DEL OTRO. GRACIAS. Choose a template. “La educación es el lugar de la relación, del encuentro con el otro. Es esto lo que es en primer lugar y por encima de cualquier otra cosa. Es esto lo que la hace.
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It must be recognized, in all honesty, that this report tackles all governmental levels, that it pretends to cast a world-wide look at the educational situation of persons with disabilities, that rakes through every corner on the planet in search for relevant information to rethink specific public policies. But this is done at the same time as one trips over the first stone, as the first carols is encountered, namely, not being able to determine the real extent of the problem.
And although it can be intuited that this is a critical problem, it is no longer a lament for something “that is in crisis”, but that we are facing a truly dramatic question – and it would not be at all incorrect to put it in these terms because it is related, first and foremost, with the conditions of existence of others and also with our own lives. From the point of view of a certain ethical positioning that I shall henceforth assume, the separation between “us” and the “others” has ceased to work, both theoretically and politically.
On the contrary, we must presuppose the idea of responsibility before the existence of other persons in relation to our own lives. The carlow encountered, as we have already mentioned, an insurmountable difficulty: The paradox lies, then, in pretending to discuss the extent of a problem without having data to enable measuring it with precision: Where are those disabled boys, girls, youngsters, who are not within any known institution?
How many disabled persons are within the educational system? Educacioh how are they doing, i. To what extent there has been an increase in drop-out rates because students did not find adequate pedagogical singularities for them in common non-special institutions.
This is especially serious in Africa and in Latin Americabut it is also worrying in other continents. But it is not only a question of statistics, it is not a question of just knowing what the number of people we are referring to rel, or to what extent this quantification announces a certain kind of problem.
This is directly related to a lack of information that forewarns a historical evolution and an ethical dimension of a unique nature: On the other hand, I think one must be guarded against believing that information is everything, that it can do everything; I mean, it is possible to have updated information but at the same time, one can maintain a relation marked by alienation and disinterest.
Therefore, it is not simply a question of evaluating the situation of edcuacion persons, but rather to consider how, indeed, the extent of the problem is itself threatened by the extent of the lack of information. Concerning Latin America, the right to education and the schooling situation of persons with disabilities.
There is one detail in particular, that even if it is not surprising, it brings about pain, pain I say, that comes from and represents part of the language of the ethical position that I have assumed, concerning the right to education of disabled persons in Latin America.
La Educacion (Que Es) del Otro
My intention is to show where neglect lies, where indolence is stronger, where there is slackness and, also, where this lack of interest in this population with disabilities grows and is constituted. To do this, I shall first refer to the kind of survey carried out on a world – wide basis, and then to proceed to focus on some crucial topics concerning Latin America.
A certain number of questions was sent to all countries in the world, to get some orientation and whose answers reflected the situation of persons with disabilities as sharply as possible. Among these questions were the following: Evidently, this is a myriad of questions, a myriad of issues, that perhaps most of our countries are not yet able to answer.
In the collected data, one can appreciate what countries answered and which did not; one can perceive a large number of answers mainly from non-governmental organizations, rather than from State Agencies. It is interesting to see the discrepancy that appears when the answer is from an NGO or from the State. This perception is peculiar, though of course perfectly justifiable. This discrepancy arises, fundamentally, from the fact that for NGOs perhaps because they are associations of parents or relatives of disabled persons the diagnosis is much more severe and the need for a solution more urgent, while for State Agencies everything would be “in the process of being solved.
Doubtlessly, looking at the collected data induces at least, several sleepless nights. The word sleepless acquires here an important relevance as some people affirm that the ethical subject is the one who cannot “sleep”, who cannot “rest”, when he knows that the existence of the other is threatened 2.
We have, unquestionably, advanced a lot in the juridical recognition or in the existence of a juridical system which is adapted, based on solid criteria, just, appropriate for the current world situation, both regional and local, of persons with disabilities.
This is the first interesting point, as it allows to reveal to what extent juridical language answers or reflects on, in their language and structure, i.
There are on our continent, financing levels that are relatively adequate but are not directly related to the content and aims of juridical texts on inclusion. It is clear that the question of financing of public policies in education must be the object of careful discussion.
However, it is possible to affirm that most countries have had some resources in this sense, but they have only been used for the implementation of partial and insufficient mechanisms of teacher education and training. The percentage of disabled persons of school age that effectively are within the educational system is extremely small, regardless of whether this system sets out a sharp division between special and common education, or if it comprises a unique student body in its general system of education.
There are, judging by the collected information, no follow-up or control projects, for inclusion projects of persons with disabilities within the educational system. Or, expressed in a different – perhaps healthier – way, there is no accompaniment in school life for this population, except for a few countries like Costa Ricaand, albeit in a different sense, Cuba.
How can one interpret this fact? And it is not just a matter of proclaiming policies of universal access to institutions, unrestricted access of all disabled personas to schools, but at the same time, within the same timeframe, creating a thinking pattern and a sensitivity associated to the meaning of being together, the why and wherefore of being together, the conception of being together.
Someone might say, and justly so, that the first step is to “force” once for all the access of this population to educational institutions. I do not think that “inclusion” must come first, and then to ponder on what living together at school is like. One can realize how in many countries on our continent these two questions are completely unrelated, dissociated, divorced.
Somehow, it seems to become clear that all students must be together within in the educational system but we have not yet developed a firm standpoint regarding the event itself, the pedagogical relationship as such. It is not incumbent on me nor am I in favour of stating what inclusion should be and I reassert it now, as this is the main conclusion drawn after an in-depth reading of the report: It “is” not an entity by itself, from itself, by its own definition.
Thus, this is how we should interpret it in the mouths of those who utter the word “inclusion” regardless of the meaning we attribute to the word inclusion. Partly in contradiction to what I previously stated, I want to record that the origin of the word inclusion can be found in the Latin expression in-clauserei. I do not think I am wrong when I state that the report in question presents three broad ways of thinking about the possible meanings of inclusive education.
There is an entire first part where an effective assertive narrative appears, I should add that it is neither speculative nor interpretative, where the text turns around what inclusive education is; what inclusive education should be, to what point inclusive education must be based on a set of specific laws, appropriate formulae, and universal mechanisms.
Notwithstanding, the report swiftly changes its narrative style as it leaves aside, in part, the idea of inclusive “morals”, and grows in complexity as it incorporates, not more and more laws, more and more official texts, more and more formulae or techniques, but the concrete subjects of educational action: In the first place, the temporality of the projecti.
This must be highlighted, although it is probably common knowledge nowadays, because inclusive education does not refer uniquely to the basic education system, and it would be a discrepancy to create inclusion systems within a certain period of the institutional life of children and only then.
Secondly, the idea of inclusion should be founded on the parents’ and their relatives’ freedom to choose the educational system adequate for their children. Geographic location and the kind of educational and institutional project is a decision centred on freedom of choice of the family circle. To the temporal reach and family choice, a third element should be added to the relationship between inclusion and justice, that has to do with the children’s right to express their opinions.
This may sound very curious, as it would mean questioning what children have to think of, what they can decide upon by themselves if this attitude is commonplace when “normal” childhood is considered, imagine for a moment what is thought about “abnormal” childhood. But if the work that is being done serves any purpose, it is precisely to think from the point of view of childhood, and not from the adults’ point of view.
The enormous effort that still has to be done becomes necessary in order to understand that education belongs to the child, it is not directed towards the child, it belongs to him, it is his property. Sometimes when debates are carried out in legal terms, one tends to forget that rights are every person’s property, we are not the ones who enable or disable a given right, rights belong to every one of us, to any human being that should be ethically considered as preceding our own selves.
Let us focus, then, on that triad, this sort of triple affirmation over what takes up the sense of educational inclusion: I believe that these are three facets that although one of them looks more institutional, the other two are decidedly ethical. It is a question of movement, of a tension associated with the creation of spaces – not so much of teaching and learning in traditional terms – but of establishing a peculiar conversational style between the educational community, the family and the children regarding what we do with school, what we do with the schooling project, what we do with what we call inclusion.
I have tried from the very beginning to state that the most serious problem is the huge number of disabled persons that are not part of the educational system.
La Educacion (Que Es) del Otro: Carlos Skliar: Books –
It is not a question of whether they are in a regular school or in special institutions, it is simply the fact that “they are not there”.
It is true that in our countries this situation does not affect this population exclusively or peculiarly, for that matter. But it is evucacion true that information collected in the report alludes to two very different issues: The report shows in crystal-clear terms that the problem becomes more complex when we think of how educational institutions search within their crlos or identify in it the places where this population lives, their way of life, their day-to-day experiences.
The problem experienced by those who are in the educational system is not a minor one, either. To turn this debate more transparent, in the first situation, that alludes to the absence of the majority of the population, we consider that it is essentially a quantitative problem. In the second situation, where the population, albeit a minority body, is present, the problem is of a qualitative nature, relative to the kind of schooling projects that may or may not address their individual characteristics.
The serious problem of high drop-out rates depends on these two questions. In this line of thought, it becomes necessary to reflect not only on the need to find strategies to preclude initial exclusion, but also on those that may help to prevent students from dropping out.
An inclusion proposal requires the instrumentation of varied policies, that should be both integrated and enabled simultaneously.
From the point of view of the political time frame, it is understandable that all efforts should have been directed to the access of the population to the educational system. However, this is not a problem related to the temporal sequence, which must first address the presence at the institutions, and then to imagine the nature of this inclusive “interiority” We leave aside some of these considerations to focus in greater detail on some of the possible interpretations of what is happening to inclusion, judging by data generated by the report.
Another conclusion may appear more than obvious, however imprecise and harrowing though it may be. It is what is educaciob as “lack of political will”. However, in this particular context, it can have a very precise root. Historically, in Latin Americathe lack of political will creates ltro of the times a real sensation sklir discontinuity cxrlos abandonment of regional and national educational projects. To exemplify what has just been asserted, I must go back to the four central points I started my intervention with, thus showing the reality of current inclusive policies in most of our continent.
Books by Carlos Skliar
Except for a few specific cases, this is the sharp image of the current situation, on which we must insist with sufficient force. Leaving aside, at least partially, the formal structure of the report and its narrative, I have the impression that the crucial question, the deo question, otrro disturbing and necessary, might be worded thus: Whose responsibility is, then, the inclusion problem? Immediately, we feel tempted to answer ” it involves all of us “.
But with this general and fuzzy assertion, complexity and seriousness quickly get diluted. I am not afraid to assert that the problem, the question of inclusion, depends to a large extent, on the general system of dl. In principle, this affirmation is a direct way of precluding people from identifying inclusion as a movement that depends entirely on the special education system, its institutions, professionals, families and on their knowledge.
Whom or what oro he referring to? A theoretical and historical revision in skliarr detail should be made around this question; however there is the feeling that in most countries, inclusion has been the result of direct and exclusive action by special education bodies. This is apparent even when we perceive the disciplinary transformation and the discursive transvestism caglos is denoted by the passage from special education to “attention to diversity”.
The protagonism of special education in inclusion is indisputable and, at the same time, insufficient and incomplete by necessity and because of its nature. The knowledge and practices of special education cannot only reside in the professionals. Not only because they have been justly and vehemently criticized and, in some cases with undue severity, but because even when this knowledge and these practices are solid enough, they are not always decisive or pertinent for a complete transformation of common educational institutions.
Change in these institutions does not only depend on a disciplinary transference from special education to regular education.
In educacjon sense, we should revise the question about inclusion whose answer as given by the regular school is almost always: Many countries which are vigorously facing this question, have decided that it all depends on a good education, a good training in the domain of inclusion, trying to give a new and different meaning to what is commonly meant by “being prepared”.
At this point, it is possible to affirm that we do not know what to be prepared really means. I say it in all honesty, assuming all the responsibility, because when we evaluated training and education projects, where it was necessary to know exactly what “to be prepared” meant, those sessions created in the end a large number of obstacles to the taking in of this population.
What can the expressions “to be prepared” and “not to be prepared” mean?