If you want a hard-copy version of the C++ Annotations: printable versions are available in zip-archives containing files in postscript, pdf and other formats at. source: c++-annotations (main); version: ; maintainer: Frank B. Brokken [ DMD]; uploaders: George Danchev [DMD] – tony mancill [DMD]; arch: all. Extensive tutorial and documentation about C++. Package: c++-annotations ( ) The C++ Annotations do not cover all aspects of C++, though.

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Please state the document version you’re referring to, as found in vresion title in this document: All received mail is processed conscientiously, and received suggestions for improvements are usually processed by the time a new version of the Annotations is released.

Except for the incidental case I will normally not acknowledge the receipt of annotqtions for improvements. Please don’t interpret this as me not appreciating your efforts.

Other sources should be referred to for annotstions e. The reader should be forwarned that extensive knowledge of the C programming language is actually assumed. Some elements of the language, like specific lexical tokens such as trigraphs such as?? The first number is the major number, and is verskon not going to change for some time: The middle number is increased when new information is added to the document.

The last number only indicates small changes; it is increased when, e. All correspondence concerning suggestions, additions, improvements or changes to this document should be directed to the author: A few extensions to C are reviewed and the concepts of object based and object oriented programming OOP are briefly introduced.

Coverage of regular expression handling was moved from the Containers chapter to the chapter covering the Standard Template Library. In addition some minor topics e. Sections about condition variablles were also rewritten.

Also the string chapter was updated. There are two major differences between versions 9. First, unrestricted unions are covered in more detail cf. See chapter 21 for details. The result is fabulous! Previous modifications can be found in the distribution’s whatsnew.

Finally, typos were repaired. There is no simple answer to that question. If the above a is of type std:: Suddenly intermediate int values can be modified, as illustrated by the following snippet of code: Many readers have submitted annotatiosn for improvements since version 8.

Thanks, Francesco, for all the effort you’ve put in improving this document!

Finally, in version 9. Thanks again, Francesco, for all your contributions! Many inconsistencies that had crept into the text and examples were removed, streamlining the text and synchronizing examples with the text. I received a host of suggestions from Francesco Poli thanks, Francesco and several othersfor all the effort x put into sending me those corrections.

Furthermore, two new chapters were added: Name spaces, originally covered by the introductory chapter are now also covered in a separate chapter. Back then verslon code was compiled by a standard C compiler.


This file would then versioon converted to a C source file with the extension. Often compilers determine the language used in a source file from its extension.

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No abrupt change of habits is required. After some time, Karel rewrote the text and converted the guide to a more suitable format and of course to English in september The first version of the guide appeared on the net in october By then it was converted to SGML.

Gradually new chapters were added, and the contents were modified and further improved thanks to countless readers who sent us their comment. Be sure to read the legal notes. Reading the annotations beyond this point implies that you are aware of these notes and that you agree with them.

If you like this document, tell your friends about it. Even better, let us know by sending email to Frank. There are some differences you might encounter when you simply rename a file to a file having the extension. The underlying philosophy is probably that char s, when passed as arguments to functions, are passed as integers anyway.

Furthermore, the C compiler handles a character constant like ‘c’ as an integer constant. An int is still an intthough.

As we shall see later section 2. The former using an int argument, the latter a char.

The declaration doesn’t specify which arguments if any are accepted by the function. Any arguments passed to it result in a compile-time error. Note that the keyword extern is not required when declaring functions.

A function definition becomes a function declaration simply by replacing a versipn body by a semicolon. The keyword extern is required, though, when declaring variables. Considering the free nature of this document, it annotationd come as a surprise that a free compiler is suggested here. This will download the file setup.

Chapter 2: Introduction

The software to be installed can be downloaded by setup. There are alternatives e. The offered defaults are sensible and should be accepted unless you have reasons to divert. If the compiler that is made available in the Cygnus distribution lags behind the latest version, the sources of the latest version can be downloaded after which the compiler can be built using an already available compiler. The compiler’s webpage mentioned annoattions contains detailed instructions on how to proceed.

In our experience building a new compiler within the Cygnus environment works flawlessly. If the default name is inappropriate, the name of the executable can snnotations specified using the -o flag here producing the program source: With all serious programming projects program maintenance tools are used. New programs would be developed in less time because old code can be reused.

Vfrsion and using new data types would be easier than in C. Which of these allegations are true? New languages are often oversold: The development of new programs while existing code is reused can also be implemented in C by, e. Functions can be collected in a library and need not be re-invented with each annotations program.

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Creating and using new data types is certainly possible in C ; e. From these types other types can be derived, thus leading annorations struct s containing struct s and so on. Especially when dedicated C functions anontations as xmalloc and xrealloc are used allocating the memory or aborting the program when the memory pool is exhausted. However, with functions like malloc it is easy to err. Frequently errors in C programs can be traced back to miscalculations when using malloc.

However, the language does offer various new and elegant facilities which are worth investigating. This may be considered a serious drawback of the language. Although we verson used to this increased level of complexity over time, the transition was neither fast nor painless.

It is our hope that you like this document and may benefit from it. What is Object-Oriented Programming?

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Object-oriented and object-based programming propagates a slightly different approach to programming problems than the strategy usually used in C programs. Thus a conglomerate of functions is created, vwrsion through arguments and variables, global or local or static.

In contrast or maybe better: These keywords are then depicted in a diagram where arrows are drawn between those keywords to depict an internal hierarchy. The keywords become the objects in the implementation and the hierarchy defines the relationship between these objects. The term object is used here to describe a limited, well-defined structure, containing all information about an entity: As an example of an object oriented approach, an illustration follows: The employees and owner of a car dealer and auto garage company are paid as follows.

First, mechanics who work in the garage are paid a certain sum each month. Second, the owner of the company receives a fixed amount each month. Third, there are car salesmen who work in the showroom and receive their salary each month plus a bonus per sold car. Finally, the company employs second-hand car purchasers who travel around; these employees receive their monthly salary, a bonus per bought car, and a restitution of their travel expenses.

When representing the above salary administration, the keywords could be mechanics, owner, salesmen and purchasers. The properties of such units are: When analyzing the problem in this manner we arrive at the following representation: The owner and the mechanics can be represented by identical types, receiving a given salary per month.

The relevant information for such a type would be the monthly amount.