The Bible Society Bookstore. 33 Central American Boulevard. Belize City, Belize. First edition. Di Nyoo Testiment in Belize Kriol. Belize, Central America. [bzj]. Forum of Bible Agencies International: Find a Bible in Belize Kriol English Alternate names: Kriol, Miskito Coast Creole English, Western Caribbean Creole . Belize Kriol English New Testament [Inc. Wycliffe Bible Translators] on Amazon. com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Vernacular Title: Di Nyoo Testiment.
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Population estimates are difficult; virtually all of the more than 70, Creoles in Belize speak Kriol. In the Belize Census, This puts the number at overKriol is the lingua franca of Belize and is the first language of some GarifunasMestizosMayaand other ethnic groups. It is a second language for most others in the country.
When the National Kriol Council began standardizing the orthography for Kriol, it decided to promote the spelling Kriol only for the language but to continue to use the spelling Creole to refer to the people in English. Belize Kriol is derived mainly from English.
Its substrate languages are the Native American language Miskitoand the various West African and Bantu languages which were brought into the country by slaves. There are numerous theories as to how creole languages form. A language emerged from the contact of English landowners and their West African slaves to ensure basic communication. The Baymen first began to settle in the area of Belize City in the s. By the Convention of London in the British were supposed to cease all logwood cutting operations along the Caribbean coast of Central America, except for the Belize settlement.
The immigrants outnumbered the Baymen five to one. Today, Belize Kriol is the first or second language of the majority of the country’s inhabitants. Many of them speak standard English as well, and a rapid process of decreolization is going on. As such, a creole continuum exists and speakers are able to code-switch among various mesolect registers between the most basilect to the acrolect ” Mid-Atlantic ” varieties. It should be noted that the acrolect, much like the basilect, is rarely heard.
The Bible in Bileez Kriol – Belize Creole English
English taught in the schools of Belize is based on British English. However, this gible often influenced by the teachers’ Kriol speech. The Ministry of Education: School Effectiveness Report p. Belizean people speak English, Kriol, and often Spanish, while learning the English system of writing and belizw in schools.
It is a slightly different system of communication from the standard forms. Kriol shares phonological similarities with many Caribbean English Creoles as well as to English, its superstrate language.
Many Creoles keep this tendency after creolization. Kriol is no exception in this point. Kriol uses a high number of nasalized vowels, palatalizes non-labial stops bdlize prenasalizes voiced stops. Consonant clusters are reduced at the end of words and many sylables are reduced to only a consonant and vowel. Like most creole languages, Kriol has a tendency to an open syllabic structure, meaning there are many words ending in vowels.
This feature is strengthened by its tendency to delete consonants at the end of words, especially when the preceding vowel is unstressed. Nasalization is phonemic in Kriol, caused by the deletion of final nasal consonants.
The nasal feature is kept, even if the consonant has been dropped. Like all other creoles, Kriol also has a tendency to reduce consonant clusters no matter where they occur. Final consonant clusters are almost always reduced by dropping the second consonant. Initial and medial occurrences are reduced much less consistently. When it occurs in the middle of a word, it is often deleted leaving a residual vowel length. However, due to the ongoing process of decreolization, some speakers include such dental fricatives in their speech.
Belize Kriol – Bible Free Download
Unstressed initial vowels are often deleted in Kriol. Sometimes this can lead to a glottal stop instead. Vowels tend to be alternated for the ones used in English, f. Stress is evenly distributed across syllables, meaning that the prosody of Kriol is different than its lexifier. It is reserved mainly for content words an appears to only have High and Low tones .
Belizean Creole – Wikipedia
The voiceless stops can also be aspirated. However, aspiration is not a constant feature, therefore the aspirated and non-aspirated forms are allophonic. The tongue is more lax here than in American English, its position is more similar to British English.
Glottal stops occur rarely and inconsistently. The same is perceived of four of the less productive monophthongs. Unlike most creoles, Kriol has a standardized orthography. The symbol choices for brlize vowels come from ways those vowels are spelled in English, not the International Phonetic Alphabet.
The present tense verb is not marked overtly in Kriol.
It also does not indicate number or person. As an unmarked verb, it can refer both to present beloze to perfective. The English past tense marker d at the end of the verbs indicates acrolectal speech. However, there is the boble to mark past by putting the tense marker mi before the verb. Overt marking is rare, however, if the sentence includes a semantic temporal marker, such as “yestudeh” yesterday or “laas season” last season. The future tense is indicated by employing the preverbal marker wa or a.
Unlike the marking of past tense, this marking is not optional. The preverbal marker di expresses the progressive aspect in both past and present tense. However, if the past is not marked overtly lexically or by using bwlizean unambiguous understanding is only possible in connection to context.
Kriol does not have a habitual aspect in its own right. Other creoles have a general tendency to merge the habitual with completive, the habitual with progressive, or the habitual with future. Kriol however, velize not clearly merge it with anything.
Thus, we can only assume that the bble is expressed through context and not through morphological marking. The conditional mood is expressed through the conditional verbs wudami-waand mia.
The short version, dais employed only in the present tense; past tense requires the longer forms. There is no overt lexical marking of active and passive in Kriol. It is only the emphasis of a sentence which can clarify the meaning, together with context. Emphasis can be strengthened by adding emphatic markers, or through repetition and redundancy.
There are four forms of “be” in Kriol: The equative form di is used as a copula when the complement of the verb is either a noun or a noun phrase.
No overt marking is used when the complement is an adjective. The verb “to go” is irregular in Kriol, especially when set in the future progressive. In past tense, this is similar: A verb which is used extensively in each conversation is mek.
It can be used like a modal in casual requests, in threats and intentional statements, and, of course, like the standard verb “to make”. Plurals are usually formed in Kriol by inserting the obligatory postnomial marker de. Variations of this marker are den and dem. As decreolization is processing, the standard English plural ending -s occurs far more frequently. Sometimes, the de is added to this form, f.
Many Spanish, Maya, and Garifuna words refer to popular produce and food items: The construction of sentences in Kriol is very similar to that in English. All declarative and most interrogative sentences follow this pattern, the interrogatives with a changed emphasis. The construction of the phrases follows Standard English in many ways. Locatives are more frequently used in Kriol and much more productive than in Standard English.
The general locative is expressed by the morpheme da “at” or “to”. This is an indication of either emphasis or decreolization. To express “to look at”, it is wrong to say “luk da”.
The correct version would be “luk pan”. In a noun phrase, Kriol can employ a structure of both noun and pronoun to create emphasis. Adjectives are employed predicatively and attributively. They can be intensified either by the postposed adverb modifier badby iteration, or by the use of the adverb modifier onli. Iteration is here the usual way.
Comparatives and superlatives are constructed according to morphosyntactic rules. A comparative is made by adding -a to the stem “taal” — “taala” — tall. The morpheme den is employed to form comparative statements, f. Superlatives are created by adding -es to the stem. In all cases, the use of the definite article di is obligatory.
The copula is present if the superlative is used predicatively. An example could be: