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C for ATmega32L — Active: Min and Max values will be available after the device is characterized. By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle, the ATmega32 achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designer to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.
Block Diagram Figure 2. All the 32 registers are directly connected to the Arithmetic Logic Unit ALUallowing two independent registers to be accessed in one single instruction executed in one clock cycle. The resulting architecture is more code efficient while achieving throughputs up to ten times faster than conventional CISC microcontrollers.
The ATmega32 provides the following features: The Power-down mode saves the register con- tents but freezes the Oscillator, disabling all other chip functions until the next External Interrupt or Hardware Reset. In Power-save mode, the Asynchronous Timer continues to run, allowing the user to maintain a timer base while the rest of the device is sleeping.
This allows very fast start-up combined with low-power consumption. The boot program can use any interface to download the application program in the Application Flash memory. Soft- ware in the Boot Flash section will continue to run while the Application Flash section is updated, providing true Read-While-Write operation. PA0 Digital supply voltage. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors selected for each bit.
The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.
When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. The Port B output buffers 16;i symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.
As inputs, Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running.
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Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega32 as listed on page The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. As inputs, Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.
As inputs, Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active, even if the clock is not running. Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega32 as listed on page A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset, even if the clock is not running.
The minimum pulse length is given in Table 15 on page Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset. Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. This documentation contains simple code examples that briefly show how to use various parts of the device.
These code examples assume that the part specific header file is included before compilation. Be aware that not all C Compiler vendors include bit definitions in the header files and interrupt handling in C is compiler dependent. Please atmeya32 with the C Compiler documentation for more details. The main function of the CPU core is to ensure correct program execution. The CPU must therefore be able to access memories, agmega32 calculations, control peripherals, and handle interrupts.
Instructions in the program memory are executed with a single level pipelining. While one instruction is being executed, the next instruction is pre-fetched from the program memory.
This concept enables instructions 61pi be executed in every clock cycle.
The program memory is InSystem Reprogrammable Flash memory. The fast-access Register File contains 32 x 8-bit general atmeta32 working registers with a single clock cycle access time.
In a typical ALU operation, two operands are output from the Register File, the operation is executed, and the result is stored qtmega32 in the Register File — in one clock cycle. Six of the 32 registers can be used as three bit indirect address register pointers for Data Space addressing — enabling efficient address calculations.
One of the these address pointers can also be used as an address pointer for look up tables in Flash Program memory. These added function registers are the bit X- Y- and Z-register, described later in this section. Ztmega32 ALU supports arithmetic and logic operations between registers or between a constant and a register. Single register operations can also be executed in the ALU. Program flow is provided by conditional and unconditional jump and call instructions, able to directly address the whole address space.
Most AVR instructions have a single bit word format. Every program memory address contains a or bit instruction. Program Flash memory space is divided in two sections, the Boot program section and the Application Program section. During interrupts and attmega32 calls, the return address Program Counter PC is stored on the Stack.
All atemga32 programs atega32 initialize the SP in the reset routine before subroutines or interrupts are executed. The 61pi spaces in the AVR architecture are all linear and regular memory maps. All interrupts have a separate interrupt vector in the interrupt vector table. The interrupts 61pi priority in accordance with their interrupt vector position. The lower the interrupt vector address, the higher the priority. Within a single clock cycle, arithmetic operations between general purpose registers or between a register and an immediate are executed.
The ALU operations are divided into three main categories — arithmetic, logical, and bit-functions. This information can be used for altering program flow in order to perform conditional operations. This will in many cases remove the need for using the dedicated compare instructions, resulting in faster and more compact code.
The Status Register is not automatically stored when entering an interrupt routine and restored when returning from an interrupt. This must be handled by software. The individual interrupt enable control is then performed in separate control registers. If the Global Interrupt Enable Register is cleared, none 1p6i the interrupts are enabled independent of the individual interrupt enable settings.
The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred, and is set atmeta32 the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts.
The Ibit can also be set and cleared by the application with the SEI and CLI instructions, as described in the instruction set reference. Half Carry is useful in BCD arithmetic.
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One 8-bit output operand and one 8-bit result input? Two 8-bit output operands and one 8-bit result input? Two 8-bit output operands and one bit result input One bit output operand and one bit result input Figure 4 shows the structure of the 32 general purpose working registers in the CPU. As shown in Figure 4, each register is also assigned a data memory address, mapping them directly into the first 32 locations of the user Data Space.
Although not being physically implemented as SRAM locations, this memory organization provides great flexibility in access of the registers, as the X- Y- and Z-pointer Registers can be set to index any register in the file.
R31 have some at,ega32 functions to their general purpose usage. 16i registers are bit address pointers for indirect addressing of the Data Space. The three indirect address registers X, Y, and Z are defined as described in Figure 5. Stack Pointer The Stack is mainly used for storing temporary data, for storing local variables and for storing return addresses after interrupts and subroutine calls. The Stack Pointer Register always points to the top of the Stack.
Note that the Stack is implemented as growing from higher memory locations to lower memory locations. Atmfga32 Stack space in the data SRAM must be defined by the program before any subroutine calls are executed or 16ip are enabled.
The Stack Pointer is decremented by one when data is pushed onto the Stack with the PUSH instruction, and it is decremented by two atmeg32 the return address is pushed onto the Stack with subroutine call or interrupt. The number of bits actually used is implementation dependent. In this case, the SPH Register will not be present. No internal clock division is used. Figure 6 shows the parallel instruction fetches and instruction executions enabled by the Harvard architecture and the fast-access Register File concept.
This is the basic pipelining concept to obtain up to 1 MIPS per MHz with the corresponding unique results for functions per cost, functions per clocks, and functions per power-unit. In a single clock cycle an ALU operation using two register operands is executed, and the result is stored back to the destination register. These interrupts and the separate reset vector each have a separate tamega32 vector in the program memory space.
All interrupts are assigned individual enable bits which must be written logic one together with the Global Interrupt Enable bit in the Status Register in order to enable the interrupt. This feature improves software security.
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The lowest addresses at,ega32 the program memory space are by default defined as the Reset and Interrupt Vectors. The atmwga32 also determines the priority levels of the different interrupts. The lower the address the higher is the priority level. When an interrupt occurs, the Global Interrupt Enable I-bit is cleared and all interrupts are disabled.
The user software can write logic one to the I-bit to enable nested interrupts. All enabled interrupts can then interrupt the current interrupt routine.