Background: Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson. Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS) is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD). Items 9 – 14 breviated version of the AES, known as the Apathy Scale. Copyright © SciRes. .. [6] Starkstein, S.E. and Leentjens, A.F.G. () The noso-.

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Patients with apathy were significantly older, had more severe cognitive deficits and more severe impairments in activities of daily living than patients without apathy. These findings suggest that apathy in Alzheimer’s disease should not be considered as a symptom of scalr depression only.


Several studies from our group demonstrated that apathy is a common feature of depression among individuals with or without AD, although apathy and depression may also occur independently of each other Starkstein et al. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 3 3: Subacute methylphenidate treatment for moderate to moderately severe traumatic brain injury: Conclusions Apathy is being increasingly recognized as one of the most frequent behavioural changes among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders.

The prevalence and clinical correlates of apathy and irritability in Alzheimer’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci Spring; 9 2: These modules are considered to engage independent frontal-subcortical circuits. Effects of rivastigmine treatment on the neuropsychiatric and behavioral disturbances of nursing home residents with moderate to severe probable Alzheimer’s disease: Psychostimulant use in the rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury.

A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of activity therapy for apathy in patients with dementia residing in long-term care. Future studies are needed to clarify the association between apathy and lesions in specific brain areas, as well as the role of executive dysfunction in the mechanism of apathy. Int Psychogeriatr ; 12 Suppl 1: Pharmacological management of the psychiatric aspects of traumatic Brain Inj Int Rev Psychiatry ; 15 4: Apathy is highly prevalent among patients with dementia.


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J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 16 4: In a recent study, Cummings and coworkers Cummings et al. Cross-sectional multicenter population-based apatny from Western and Southern Norway.

Please review our privacy starkstein apathy scale. A variety of psychoactive compounds were reported to improve apathy after focal brain damage, but most of these studies consist of single cases or small case series. Apathy and the functional anatomy apahhy the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. However, the magnitude and temporal course of their therapeutic effect is still controversial Whyte et al.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil Jun; 77 6: We have recently published the validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview xpathy Apathy Starkstein et al. Furthermore, patients with dementia and apathy have a significantly faster cognitive and functional decline than demented individuals without apathy.

Diagnostic criteria for apathy have been validated for Alzheimer’s disease only.

Starkstein Apathy Scale (SAS)

Textbook of Traumatic Starkztein Injury. These diagnostic criteria have been validated for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, scalf their validity in other neuropsychiatric conditions remains to be established. The results showed a significant overall increment in apathy scores during the follow-up period, but there was no depression by apathy interaction i. Finally, we also found that patients with apathy at baseline or those that developed apathy during the follow-up period had a faster cognitive and functional decline than patients with no apathy at baseline or at follow-up.

One of these circuits originates in the anterior cingulate cortex, connects with the ventral globus pallidus and the dorsomedial thalamus, and projects back to the anterior cingulate.

The prevalence, clinical correlates and treatment of apathy in Alzheimer’s disease

Anticholinesterase drugs may improve apathy in Alzheimer’s disease, although this could be an epiphenomenon of improvement on other behavioural starostein. First, apathy has been diagnosed using a variety of rating instruments and different strategies. J Head Stagkstein Rehabil ; 20 4: AD patients with apathy are more starksteon in basic activities of daily living and their caregivers report significantly higher levels of distress as compared to AD patients without apathy Landes et al.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord ; 10 2: Cummings developed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory as a multidimensional instrument administered to an informant Cummings Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 17 Thus, the beneficial effects of cholinergic therapy in AD needs to be replicated in larger, adequately powered clinical trials.


Although the item Starkstein Apathy Scale SAS is recommended to screen for and measure the severity of apathetic symptoms in Parkinson.

Finally, those studies that included patients with relatively more severe dementia showed a higher frequency of apathy than studies that included patients with milder dementia. Several treatment studies suggested that anticholinesterase compounds may improve apathy among patients with dementia. Am J Geriatr Pharmacother ; 3: We examined the frequency of apathy in a study that included a consecutive series of patients with probable AD Starkstein et al.

Possible starkstein apathy scale for dopaminergic agents following traumatic brain injury: This instrument includes questions assessing the domains of lack of motivation relative to the individual’s previous level of functioning, lack of effort to perform every day activities, dependency on others to structure activities, lack of interest in learning new things or in new experiences, lack of concern about one’s personal problems, unchanging or flat affect, and lack of emotional response to positive or negative personal events.

Apathy in Alzheimer’s disease. J Head Trauma Rehabil Aug; 17 4: The Apathy Inventory also includes separate assessments for the symptoms of emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and loss of interest. Evidence from case reports and small case series suggest the usefulness of psychostimulants to treat apathy in traumatic brain injury, whereas pharmacological trials for behavioural and psychological problems in dementia suggest that anticholinesterases may have some efficacy.

In a study that included men with Parkinson’s disease Ready and coworkers Ready et al. Conclusions Although starkstein apathy scale SAS showed fairly good psychometric properties and the exploratory factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution, the results with starkstein apathy scale PD sample indicate scalw item 3 is ambiguous and should be considered removed from the scale.